1. nutrition
    Science of intake, digestion, absorption, and utilization of nutrients for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and work
  2. Chemical element
    pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus
  3. nutrient
    chemical element or compound required by animals to maintain live, grow, and reproduce
  4. classes of nutrients
    water, carbohydrates, protiens, fats, minerals, vitamins
  5. functions of water
    solvent, transportation, temperature regulation, oxidation
  6. Carbohydrates
    organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a hydrogen to oxygen ratio of 2:1
  7. carbohydrate structure
    based on monosacharide, simple sugars linked to make long chain
  8. types of monosacharides
    • pentoses- 5 carbon cho
    • hexoses- 6 carbon cho
    • arabinose
    • xyelose
  9. disaccharide
    cho with 2 saccharides bound to each other
  10. disaccharide examples
    • sucrose- table sugar
    • lactose- milk sugar
    • maltose- malt sugar
  11. polysaccharides
    cho conatining multiple # of 6 and or carbon sacchorides
  12. 3 main polysaccharides
    starch,cellulose, hemicellulose
  13. starch
    long chains of glucose connected by a alpha 1-4 bond, energy storage in plants,
  14. enzymes
    biomolecules that catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reacions, produced in digestive tract to breakdown nutrients
  15. cellulose
    • used as structural component of plant, low in grains, high in forages,
    • long chains of glucose connected by beta 1-4 bonds
  16. hemicellulose
    used as structural component of plant, polysaccharide composed of pentoses and hexoses
  17. functions of cho
    • main source of energy for farm animals, < 1% stored in body
    • stored as glycogen
    • interacts with other nutrients
  18. protien
    • narurally occuring complex compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and sometimes sulfer or phosphorus.
    • made up of amino acids
  19. amino acids
    • molecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with a amine group and a carboxylic group
    • mammals contain 15% protien, higher in meat producing animals,
  20. protien functions
    • enzymes
    • hormones
    • connective tissue
    • antibodies
    • keratins
  21. amino acids
    building blocks for protiens, sequence of amino acid in a protien defines what protien does.
  22. peptide bond
    covalent bond formed between 2 amino acids when the carboxyle group of 1 amino acid binds with teh amino amino group of the other amino acid
  23. amino acid, amine group
  24. Amino acid, carboxye group
  25. non essential amino acids
    • amino acids that are synthesized by the body, thus there is not a dietary requirement for these.
    • Glycine
    • Alanine
  26. Essential Amino Acid
    • must be included in the diet, cant be built by animal
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
  27. Protien- amino acid process
    animal consumes protien, digestive tract breaks down protien into AA, animal absorbs AA from GIT, animal builds protien it needs from absorbed AA
  28. Limited AA theory
    • protien Production will stop when no longer have an AA that is required
    • protien production is limited by the 1st AA that becomes limited
    • ex: if require 10 AA-1 to make protien and have 25 AA-1 can make 2 protiens
  29. lipids
    • organic compounds containg carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, that are in soluble in water
    • contain higher % of H than O
  30. Lipids include:
    Fats, oils, waxes, fatty acids, and triglycerides
  31. lipid functions
    • structural components of membranes
    • storage of metabolic fuel (energy)
    • antioxidant
  32. Fatty acids
    • Chains of Carbon and hydrogen with some oxygen
    • -from 2 carbons up to 24 carbons in length
    • -carboxyl group on 1 end
    • -methyl group on other
  33. types of fatty acids
    saturated and unsaturated
  34. saturated fatty acids
    • no double bonds between carbons
    • all carbons have 2 H except on carboxyl end
    • fully saturated with H
    • animal fat high in saturated fatty acid
  35. unsaturated Fatty acid
    • atleast 1 double bond between 2 of carbons
    • -mono- 1 double bond
    • -poly- more than one double bond
    • high in plants
  36. Hydrogenation
    chemical reaction where unsaturated double bonds are reduced by adding H to each of the 2 carbons
  37. fatty acid info
    • animals tend to convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats
    • saturation affects melting point
    • -unsaturated tend to b liquid at room temp
    • -saturated tend to b solid at room temp
  38. essential fatty acids
    • Linoleic acid- C18-2
    • Linolenic acid-C18-3
    • both must be included and absorbed from diet
  39. triglycerides
    • molecules that contain 1 glycerol and 3 FA
    • -most common form of fats in animals and plants
  40. phospholipids
    • 1 of FA on triglyceride is replaced with phosphorus
    • -critical in animal cell membranes
    • -act as emulsifiers
  41. omega 3 FA
    • unsaturated FA
    • Have double bond at 3rd C from Methyl end
    • -Lindenic
    • Good FA?
  42. Omega 6 FA
    • unsaturated FA
    • -have double bond at 6th C from methyl end
    • Lindeic
    • bad FA
  43. minerals
    inorganic compounds required in small amounts that are required for functions of life
  44. mineral funtions
    • body structure
    • protien synthesis
    • oxygen transport
    • fluid balance
    • enzymes
  45. vitamins
    • organic compounds that typically function as parts of enzyme systems essential for many metabolic functions
    • - needed in very small amounts
  46. vitamin function
    • enzymatic reactions
    • antioxidants
  47. water soluble vitamins
    C and B
  48. Fat soluble vitamins
    A,D,E, and K
  49. factors affecting animal intake
    • species
    • body wieght
    • age
    • energy density of diet
    • palatability
Card Set
animal nutrition