1. Aerobic Respiration steps and ATP released?
    Glycolysis – glucose breakdown (2 ATP), Krebs Cycle (2 ATP), Oxidative phosphorylation (26-28 ATP). 30-32 ATP total per glucose molecule.
  2. Active transport examples, details?
    • Ca2+ pumps – Ca2+ binds to carrier protein in cytosol, carrier protein is phosphorylated by ATP -> ADP + Pi, carrier protein changes shape moving Ca2+ out of cell (where concentration is greater).
    • Na+/K+ ATPase – pumps 3 Na+ out of cell and 2 K+ into cell simultaneously to generate gradients for electrical impulses in nerves and muscles AND drive co-transport of other substances across the membrane (glucose)
  3. Structural classification of neurons w/ location.
    • Multipolar (motor/association)
    • Pseudounipolar (sensory)
    • Bipolar (sensory in eyes/ears/nose)
  4. Schwann's Cells
    PNS - Forms myelin sheath (single axon)
  5. Satellite Cells
    PNS - Surrounds cell bodies in ganglia
  6. Oligodendrocytes
    CNS - Forms myelin sheath (mutiple axons)
  7. Astrocytes
    CNS - Varied functions, controls permeability of blood-brain barrier
  8. Microglia
    CNS - Act as macrophages
  9. Ependymal Cells
    CNS - Line brain ventricles/spinal cord cavities, creates CSF
  10. Nicotinic ACh Receptors: Ionotropic/Metabotropic?
  11. Nicotinic ACh Receptors: Excitatory/Inhibitory?
  12. Nicotinic ACh Receptors: Location?
    Found in specific regions of brain, skeletal muscle cells, cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons in ganglia
  13. Nicotinic ACh Receptors: Function?
    Na+ in and K+ out simultaneously
  14. Nicotinic ACh - Neurotransmitter removal?
    ACh quickly broken down by acetyl cholinesterase which is embedded in the post-synaptic cell membrane
  15. Muscarinic ACh receptors: Ionotropic/Metabotropic?
  16. Muscarinic ACh receptors: Excitatory/Inhibitory?
    Excitatory in GI tract, inhibitory in heart
  17. Muscarinic ACh receptors: Location?
    CNS neurons, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
  18. Muscarinic ACh receptors: Function?
    G-Protein dissociates into separate subunits that activate enzymes/ion channels.
  19. GABA receptors: Ionotropic/Metabotropic?
  20. GABA receptors: Excitatory/Inhibitory?
  21. GABA receptors: Location?
    CNS neurons
  22. GABA receptors: Function?
    Cl- into cell
  23. Monoamine receptors: Ionotropic/Metabotropic?
  24. Monoamine receptors: Excitatory/Inhibitory?
    Can be either, depending on the postsynaptic cell
  25. Monoamine receptors: Function?
    G-Protein dissociates into separate subunits that activate enzymes and produce second messengers that active addition enzymes that induce metabolic changes or change in membrane potential
  26. Monoamine receptors: Neurotransmitter removal?
    Monoamines generally taken back up by presynaptic cell then broken down by an enzyme inside the pre-synaptic axon terminal.
  27. Name specific monoamines.
    Seratonin, catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine)
Card Set