The _______ system forms the entire surface area of the body. It is dominated by the largest organ of the body; the sking. The skin is composed of two distinct layers: an inner, deep layer composed of connective tissue known as the dermis, and an outer layer of epithelium called the epidermis.
The term dermis means "skin," and the term __________ means "on top of skin."
The integumentary systme also includes smaller accessory organs embedded within the skin, such as ____________.
hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and sensory receptores.
_______________ is provided against outside temperature changes, dehydration, and infectious microorganisms that may cause diesase.
As the outermost organ of the body, the skin is more exposed to the extremes of the external environment than any other __________, subjecting it to temperature fluctuations, physical injury, and invasion by unwanted microorganisms.
Many types of inherited and acquired diseases may also afflict the __________.
The _________ that it provides to your overall health is significant: a loss of skin can lead to severe consequences due to dehydration and infection, even death.
The medical field that specializes in the health and disease of the integumentary system.
A common injury to the skin caused by scraping produces a superficial wound
A localized elevation of the skin containing a cavity, which is a sign of a local infection. This cavity contains a mixture of bacteria, white blood cells, damaged tissue, and fluids collectively known as pus and is surrounded by inflamed tissue.
Production of pus.
A local uneven surface of the skin and is a sign of subcutaneous fat deposition.
A clinical term for "scar."
A latin word that means "scar."
Plural form is cicatrices
The clinical term for "pimple."
It is a local elevation of the skin arising from the buildup of oil from sebaceous (oil) glands.
Plural form: comedones
Bruise; a discoloration and swelling of the skin that is symptomatic of an injury, such as a blow to the body. A common symptom following a physical trauma, such as an automobile accident.
it is a blue tinge of color to an area of the skin and is a sign of a cardiovascular disturbance. Usually apparent most clearly in the lips and fingertips.
A closed sac or pouch on the surface of the skin that is filled with liquid or semisold material.
The clinical term for fluid accumulation. Caused by leakage of fluid across capillary walls. A common sign of injury and infection.
The Greek word for "blush"
Any redness of the skin.
It is a common sign of injury or infection.
The clinical term for a narrow break or slit in the skin.
When an abscess is associated with a hair follicle, the local swelling on the skin is called this.
A local hard area on the skin, or perhaps elsewhere in the body. Usually a sign of an excessive deposit of collagen or calcium.
An abnormal yellow coloration of the skin and eyes. A sign of liver or gallbladder disease. The yellowing results from an abnormal release of bile pigments by the liver.
An overgrowth of scar tissue that forms an elevated lesion on the skin. It is often discolored, which sets it apart from adjacent, normal skin.
The common result of an injury caused by a tear or perhaps a cut by a sharp object with an irregular surface.
A discolored flat spot on the skin surface, such as a freckle.
A pigmented spot that is commonly called a mole.
An abnormally pale color of the skin.
A sign of an internal condition causing a decreased flow of blood to the skin.
A general term describing any small, solid elevation on the skin.
A sign of a circulatory disorder. It occurs when a small blood vessel supplying the dermis of the skin ruptures. A small red dot on the skin.
The symptom of itchy skin.
A symptom of purple-red skin discoloration. Usually the result of a hemorrhage (broken blood vessel) that spreads blood through the skin.
A general term for an elevated are of the skin filled with pus.
An erosion through the skin or mucous membrane.
A common form of ulcer arsises from lack of movement when lying supine for an extended period of time.
A common allergic skin reaction to medications, foods, infection, or injury produces small fluid-filled skin elevations.
A wart is a sign of infection by a papilloma virus.
An effort by the skin to rid itself of the virus and is observed as a skin elevation with a thickened epidermis.
A small elevation of the epidermis that is filled with fluid.
A temporary, itchy elevation of the sking, often with a white center and red perimeter.
A symptom of an allergic reaction of the skin.
An uncomfortable condition of the skin resulting from bacterial infection of sebaceous glands and ducts.
Characterized by the presence of numerous open comedones and closed comedones in affected to parts of the face and also often involves the neck, back, and chest.
The most common skin disease of adolescence, due to the rapid growth of sebaceous glands during this period of life.
A precancerous condition of the skin caused by exposure to sunlight. It forms skin lesions resulting from overgrowth of the epdiermis, usually with scaly surfaces.
A genetic condition characterized by the reduction of the pigment melanin in the skin.
Refers to the person affected with albinism.
A loss or lack of scalp hair is a clinical sign known as baldness.
May be a sign of infection of the scalp, high fevers, drug reactions, or emotional stress.
The result of a genetically controlled factor that prevents the development of hiar follicles in certain areas of the scalp.
An injury to the skin caused by excessive exposure to fire, electricity, chemicals, or sunlight.
Total Body Surface Area
The level of injury caused is determined by the amount of surface area damaged and the depth of the damage.
Classifications of Burns
A skin infection composed of a cluster of boils.
cancer that affects the skin.
Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carinoma
Tumors arising from the epidermis that usually remain localized, although the lesions do spread and can become serious if they are not treated.
Third major form of skin cancer.
An inflammation of the connective tissue in the dermis. Caused by an infection that spreads from the skin surface or hair follicles to the dermis and sometimes the subcutaneous tissue.
Inflammation of little follicles
A generalized inflammation of the skin, involving edema of the dermis.
Caused by physical contact with a triggering substance.
An inherited form characterized by excessive sebum productions.
Caused by sunlight exposure.
A superficial form of dermatitis, with flakiness of the epidermis as the primary sign.
A condition of the skin caused by leaking blood vessels in the dermis, producing purplish patches of purpura larger in size than petechiae.
A skin eruption producing clusters of deep blisters.
Caused by herpes virus type 1.
Caused by herpes type 2.
caused by the herpes zoster virus.
The individaul suffers from excessive perspiration. It is due to the imflammation of sweat glands, which can bcome worsened by bacterial infection.
A contagious skin infection. It is often caused by bacteria and is characterized by the presence of golden crusts following the rupture of the vesicles.
A form of skin cancer arising from the connective tissue of the dermis. It is indicated by the presence of brown or purple patches on the skin and appears among some elderly patients. Also a common condition associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
As some people age, their skin becomes lighter in color due to reduced activity of the pigment-producing cells in the skin, the melanocytes.
Constructed term which literally means "black tumor." Once established in the skin, the tumor grows rapidly and metastasizes.
The most life-threatening skin cancer.
A nail conition where a nail becomes buried in the skin due to abnormal growth. Commonly called an "ingrown nail."
A disease of the nail
A nail is abnormally soft.
A fungal infection of one or more nails.
An infection around the nail.
Mostly occurs on the scalp, where it is called head lice, but it may also be found in the pubic region and other parts of the body. Can be treated effectively with medicated shampoo.
A painful, chronic disease of the skin characterized by the presence of red lesions covered with slivery epidermal scales.
Believed to be an inherited inflammatory disease of the skin.
A skin eruption caused by the female itch mite, which burrows into the skin to extract blood.
Produces the symptoms of dermatitis, such as erythema, swelling, and pruritus.
An abnorml thickening or hardness of the skin, caused by overproduction of collagen in the dermis.
Systemic Lupus Erthematosus
A chronic, progressive disease of connective tissue in many organs including the skin. The early stages are often commonly referred to as just lupus; marked by red patches on the skin of the face and joint pain.
A fungal infection of the skin.
Often called "ringworm."
Forms on the scalp and can lead to alopecia.
Forms on the feet and is also known as athelete's foot.
Can occur elsewhere on the body.
A general term for a disease affecting the hair.
A fungal infection of hiar.
Characterized by abnormally dry skin. It is caused by hyposecretion (abnormally low secretion) of the oil glands and is an inherited condition.
To rub away.
A cutting instrument
A minor surgery involving the removal of tissue for evaluation.
Usually a necessary step toward making a diagnosis of a suspected tumor of the skin.
A procedure to clean a wound.
Involves excision of foreign matter and unwanted tissue.
A form of cosmetic surgery, in which the skin is surgically changed to improve appearance.
Abrasives similar to sandpaper are used to remove unwatned scars and other elevations, and may also be used to remove tattoos.
Alternative to dermabrasion, in which a chemical agent is used to remove the outer epidermal layer to treat acne, wrinkles, and sun-damaged skin.
Also called an autograft.
A skin graft.
A skin graft using skin from another person.
An instrument used to cut thin slices of skin for grafting.
May also be used to excise (surgically remove) small skin lesions.
General term for a surgical procedure of the skin.
Skin tissue is transplanted to the body surface.
A chemical agent that softens or smooths to the skin.
Used to manage infections, such as acne and carbuncles.
May also be used to manage certain forms of acne because they cause the upper layers of the epidermis to slough away.
A popular form of skin treatment, which is used for skin repair following a major injury, correction of a congenital defect, or cosmetic improvement.
Plastic surgeries that surgically repair skin wrinkles.
The removal of subcutaneous fat by the insertion of a device that applies a vacuum to pull the fat tissue out of the body.
Purse or sac, bursa
Knuckle of a joint
Flank, hip, groin, ilium of the pelvis
Haunch, hip joint, ischium
Combination of the skeletal and muscular systems.
Composed of mainly connective tissue receiving blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. Function in the support of soft internal orgnas, the sotrage of mineral salts including calcium and phosphorous, and the production of blood cells within the red bone marrow, in addition to serving as an attachment site for muscles.
The branch of medicine that focuses on the diseases of the skeletal and muscular system.
A physician that specializes in the diseases of the skeletal and muscular systems.
Bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
excessive, abnormally high, above
reaction to a stimulus, movement
Condition of pain
Condition of joint pain.
This is often the first symptom of joint or bone disease.
The inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntray activity.
A sign of a nervous system disorder that is often inherited.
Lack of movement and development which reduces the muscle strength.
An abnormally slow movement is a clinical sign of an underlying bone, muscle, or nervous disorder.
The abnormal reduction of calcium in bone
Can be treated with a combination of hormonal therapy, a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, and mild exercise.
Difficulty in movement
A general term to descrie a deformity arising during development
The sign of excessive muscle growth or development.
A common symptom of strenuous exercise.
A common symptom of "weekend athletes"
upon, over, above, or on top
alongside or abnormal
flesh or meat
Hernia, swelling, protrusion
Condition of blood
formation or growth
Without cartilage formation
An individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.
"Condition of crooked."
Joints are abnomrally stiff and movement is difficult.
A condition that may follow another disease, such as arthitis, which may damage the joint structure.
The general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint.
A common condition as people age, in which the joint structures become worn over time and gradually replaced by bone
Rheumatoid Arthrisits (RA)
An autoimmune disease in which joing structures become eroded by the action of the body's own white blood cells.
The articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammation, resulting in joint pain during movements.
Usually a temporary condition casued by a local infection.
An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe.
Caused by an inflammation of a bursa near the big toe.
Inflammation of a bursa.
A calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
It is characterized by inflammation of the wrist that causes pressure against the median nerve, resulting in local pain and restricted movement.
A weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand.
DJD (Degenerative Joint Disease)
A general term describing a disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration.
This type of disease is progressive, becoming worse in time.
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Children are occasionally born with a disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, resulting in progressive muscle weakness
The area of the elbow that becomes inflammed, usually due to an injury
A disease of unkown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limbs, face, and trunk
The clinical term for break in a bone
A break in the distal part of the radius
A break resulting in fragmentation of the bone.
A crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall
A break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces.
A break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone.
A slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an X-Ray.
a break in which the broken bones retain their alignment
A break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg.
A spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone.
An abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, which are waste products of protein metabolism.
The rupture of an intervertebral disk.
Uusally a back injury often caused by a sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object.
Occurs when the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back that often accompanies osteoporsis.
An exaggerated anterior spinal curve in the lumbar area.
A lateral curvature of the spine with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
Congential disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates, forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body form
Inflammation of a meniscus results in joint pain.
Characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation.
A malignant tumor arising from tissue.
An injury to a muslce may cause the muscle to tear through the fascia, causing a protrusion.
A common result of muscle injury is a local inflammation
Inflammation of bone
Paget's Disease (Osteitis Deformans)
Results in bone deformities due to the acceleration of bone loss.
Symptoms include sever bone pain and frequent fractures.
Bone cancer arising from epithelial tissue that has invaded a bone
Bone cancer arising from connective tissue, usually within the bone itself.
An inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones.
It is progressive, leading to severe bone pain, skeletal deformities, and frequent fractures.
A disease resulting in the softening of bones.
Inflammation of the red bone marrow is a painful disease
The abnormal loss of bone density is a common result of aging, especially among postmenopausal women.
Results in a loss of posture and flexibility
There is a loss of sensation or voluntary movement of the area of the body below the hips, including both legs.
When all four limbs are without sensation of voluntary movement.
Inflammation of many muscles.
It is a condition caused caused by bacterial infection in which a group of muscles become infected and react with inflammation.
The bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functinos. Caused by a lack of calcium and/or vitamin D in the diet.
Rotator Cuff Injury
A trauma to the shoulder can tear one or more tendons and muscles. Causes local, inflammation, pain, and joint dislocations.
Spinal Cord Injury
A trauma to the vertebral column
Inflammation of joints of vertebrae.
A tear of collagen fibers within a ligament.
Similar to a sprain but involving a muscle, usually is caused by stretching a muscle beyond its noraml range.
Temporomandibular Joint Disease
A disease of the junction of the mandible and the temporal bone, which allows the lower jaw to move when speaking and chewing.
Inflammation of a tendon is a common sports injury
A form of tendonitis that also involves inflammation of the synovial membrane surrounding the joint
surgical fixatoin or fusion
surgical removal or excision
a record or image
treatment or specialty
One who speaializes
loosen or dissolve
instrument, used for viewing
process of viewing
incision or to cut
A procedure where excess fluids are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint.
Occasionally, an abnormally stiff joint must be broken during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM.
Surgical fixation of a joint
X-ray of the joint after injection of contrast media, air, both to highlight the synovial joint.
a joint is loosned of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursoliths.
A procedure is to repair to joint.
Refers to a joint replacemen, the most common of which is a hip replacement
An endoscopic visual examination of a joint uses an instrument that integrates fiber opitcs, live-action photography, and computer enhancement.
A surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint
A surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint.
A practitioner of the field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints, most commonly the vertebral column.
Surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint is common procedure.
Surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint
A surgery involving the removal of a rib
when one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery.
this is required to perform surgery of the brain. The surgeon enters the cranial cavity
A surgical procedure that is used frequently to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk.
When the adjacent vertebrae are fused together following the removal of the disk
Surgical fixation to connect vertebrae.
During which the part of a vertebra known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
The strength of a muscle contraction can be measured and recorded by a procedure.
It utilizes an instrument that electrically stimulates a muscle, and the resulting contraction is recorded and analyzed on a computer.
A surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle.
Orthopedic surgeons, or orthopedists, treat fractures by aligning the broken bones to their normal positions in this procedure.
Closed Fracture Reduction
Manipulating the bone without surgery during reduction.
Open Fracture Reduction
Surgery invention is needed to align the broken area.
When pins, screws, rods, or plates may be used to stabliize the alignment.
When metal rods and pins are attached from outside the skin surface.
Carries the advantage of avoiding the use of a plaster cast for immobilization.
A muscle undergoes surgical repair.
Muscle repair often includes suturing the torn ends together in the procedure.
The most common pharmacological treatment for any condition, including inflammation or pain of muscle or bone tissue.
The field of medical support involving the construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts, artificial limbs, and retraction devices.
A specialist in orthotics
The medical term for an artifical limb.
The surgical removal, or excision of bone tissue
A procedure where it is necessary to break a bone purposely to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture.
A medial field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and overall health with an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition.
The surgical repair of bone
The specialty that focuses on foot health.
A healthcare professional that focuses on foot heatlh.
The surgical procedure involving the repair of both muscle and tendon.
Surgery involving the suturing of a tendon to close a tear.
A tenorrhaphy usually includes this procedure. during which one or more incisions are made into the tendon.
A surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae.
Anterior cruciate ligament; a ligament that stabilizes the knee joint
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Degenerataive joint disease
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
physician specializing in osteopathy
herniated nucleus pulposus; a herniated intervertebral disk