1. What is the difference between Stochastic and Deterministic and their characteristics?
    • Stochastic- Radiation responses that increase in INCIDENCES (not severity) with increased dose
    • Late Effects, Non Threshold
    • Deterministic- Radiation responses that increase in severity with increased dose
    • Early Effects, Threshold
  2. What are the latent periods of leukemia and skin cancers?
    • Leukemia
    • Latent- 4-7 Years
    • At Risk-20 Years

    • Skin Cancer
    • Latent- 5-10 Years
  3. What are some examples of possible late effects of radiation?
    • Genetic Mutation
    • Cancer
    • Cataracts
  4. What is the potential reduced life span for every rad exposure?
    About 10 Days for every Rad
  5. What is the dose response relationship for late effects of
  6. What type of conditions did early Radiologists experience?
    Radiodermatitis-Fluoro- Went away over time if exposure to radiation was halted
  7. What is Relative Risk and what is it's formula?, excess and absolute risks and what are the formulas for relative and excess risks?
    • Compares a number of persons in an exposed population with a number in an unexposed population who show the same late effect.
    • RR=Observed Case/Expected Cases
    • 1=No Risk
    • 1.5=50% Increase
  8. What is the leading cause of lung cancer?
  9. Which trimester is the most radiosensitive for a fetus and what are the potential effects of radiation during that trimester?
    • 1st Trimester
    • Prenatal Death
    • Neonatal Death
    • Congenital Abnormalities
    • Malignancy Induction
    • Growth Impairment
    • Genetic Effects
    • Mental Retardation
  10. What are the rad doses and how do those dose effect fertility in men and women?
    • Females-
    • 10-May Delay Cycle
    • 200-Induces temporary Inferetility
    • 500-Permanent Sterility
    • Males-
    • 10-Decrease in Sperm Count
    • 200-Temporary Infertility(2-12mo After Exposure)
    • 500-Permant Sterility
    • (Any dose can lead to genetic abnormalities)
  11. What type of cancers did watch dial painters have an increase in and why?
    BONE CANCER They used paint made of RADIUM SULFATE and then licked the tips to make a fine point. Which means they injested it more
  12. What is the dose response relationship for skin cancer?
    • Threshold Dose Response
    • (It takes a certian amount of Rad to cause a response)
  13. What dose response relationship radiation safety practices are based?
    • Linear
    • Non-threshold
    • (We believe that every single dose recieved to the body carries a risk to the body)
  14. What is the dose relationship of stochastic and deterministic effects?
    • Stochastic-Non Threshold, Late Effects
    • Deterministic-Threshold, Early Effects
  15. What is the most common malignancy linked to utero radiation?
    Childhood Leukemia
  16. What are some of the results from fetal radiation exposure?
    Radiation induced mutaions are usually harmful
  17. What is Excess Risk and what is it's formula?
    • The excess amount of cases that are assumed to be radiation induced
    • ER=Observed Cases-Expected Cases
  18. What is Absolute Risk?
    • The total risk of genetic mutation appearing in a certian population
    • Linear Dose
  19. Describe the characterisitcs of Cataracts?
    • As age goes up-Sensitivity goes up-Latent period goes down
    • Non linear threshold
  20. What is the ratio for women developing breast cancer?
    1:9 will develop breast cancer
  21. What are all radiation induced malignancies?
    They are ALL Stochastic
  22. Who helped to set dose limits and the exsistence of non threshold dose effect?
  23. Who confirmed linear non threshold dose relationships?
Card Set
Late Effects of Radiation CH36