1. as a cell increases in size, its dna____
    does not
  2. the rate at which things enter and leave the cell depends on ___
    surface area
  3. surface area
    • total area of cell membrane
    • l*w*6
  4. volume
    • l*w*h
  5. cell division
    process cell divides into 2 daughter cells
  6. before cell division the cell __
    replicates its dna,
  7. asexual reproduction
    faster, lack of diversity
  8. sexual reproduction
    longer, genteic diversity,
  9. chromosomes
    packages of dna
  10. prok.
    no nuclei, dna in cytoplasm
  11. chromatin
    complex of protein and chromosome
  12. nucleosomes
    dna and histone molecules form thick fibers
  13. chromosomes make it possible to _____
    seperate dna precisely
  14. cell cycle
    grows , prepares for division, divides
  15. binary fission
    cell diivsion in prok
  16. interphase
    g1, s, g2
  17. g1
    cell growth
  18. s
    dna replication
  19. g2
    shortest, prepare
  20. m phase
    mitosis, and cytokenisis. produces 2 daughter cells
  21. mitosis
    divides nucleus
  22. cytokenisis
    divides cytoplasm
  23. prophase
    longest, dna condenses, chromatin visible
  24. centomere
    attatch the duplicated chromosomes
  25. chromatid
    each strand in duplicated chromosome, sister chromatid
  26. metaphase
    shortest, chromosomes across center
  27. anaphase
    chromosomes split
  28. cytokenisis occurs__
    same time as telophase
  29. cytokenisis in plant cells
    cell plates form half way between the nuclei, develop into membranes which seperates into 2 cells
  30. cyclin
    regulates timing of the cell cycle
  31. external regulators
    direct to speed up or slow down
  32. growth factors
    stimulate growth, cause cells to slow or stop
  33. apoptosis
    • programmed cell death
    • cell and chromatin shrink, membranes break off
  34. cancer
    cells cannot control growth
  35. tumor
    mass of cells
  36. benign
    non cancerous
  37. malignant
    • cancerous tumors,
    • destroy tissue, absorb other cells nutrients, block nerve connections
  38. cancer treatments
    • surgery
    • radiation
    • chemotherapy
  39. chemo
    may interfere with healthy cells
  40. embryo
    adult organism is gradually produced
  41. differentiation
    cell becomes specialized
  42. totipotent
    able to do anything, become any cell
  43. blastocyst
    hollow ball with a cluster of cells inside known as inner mass cells
  44. pluripotent
    • can be most types of cells,
    • (inner mass cells)
    • not tissue
  45. stem cells
    unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells are developed
  46. embryonic stem cells
    pluripotentcells in early embryo
  47. adult stem cells
    differentiate to renew and replace cells in the adult body
  48. multipotent
    can develop into many kinds of differentiated cells
Card Set
valleie chap 10