1. What is the Sandwich rule?
    Means the process symbol should always be inbetween either an in/out put in a system flowchart.
  2. Why documentation is important?
  3. how the system works
  4. •Depicting how the system works
    • •Training users
    • •Designing new systems
    • •Controlling system development and maintenance costs
    • •Standardizing communications with others
    • •Auditing AISs
    • •Documenting business processes
    • •Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX 404 Audit)
  5. Document FlowChart
    Traces the physical flow of documents through an organization
  6. Why is a doc. FC used?
    Used to analyze systems for weaknesses in controls and reports
  7. What are the guidlines for doc fc?
  8. Identify all departments or participants involved
    • Classify activities department-wise.
    • Identify documents by numbers or color-coding.
    • Account for the distribution of every copy of a document.
    • Use on-page and off-page connectors and connect by using same letter or number.
    • Annotate document for clarity.
    • Consider sequencing whenever important.
    • Avoid acronyms to avoid confusion.
  9. System FC
    • Processes typically involve preparing control reports
    • Depict electronic job stream of data
  10. Guidelines for System FC
  11. •Arrange to read from top to bottom and left to right.
    • •Use appropriate symbols.
    • •A process symbol should always be found between an input and an output symbol. This is called the sandwich rule.
    • •Use connectors to help with clutter.
    • •Sketch a flowchart before designing the final draft.
    • •Use annotated descriptions and comments in flowcharts for clarification.
  12. Data FD
    •A data flow diagram shows the logical flows of data through a transaction processing system of an organization.
  13. What is the Data fd primarily used for?
    •They are primarily used in the systems development process as a tool for analyzing an existing system.
  14. Data flows
    • the flow of data between processes, data stores, and sources and destinations.
  15. Data processes
    •represent the transformation of data.
  16. Data stores
    •temporary or permanent repository of data. (represented by horizontal, parallel lines with name inside)
  17. A square represents (data fd)
    •an external data source or data destination.
  18. A circle indicates (data fd)
    •a internal entity that changes or transforms data.
  19. Two horizontal lines (or some variation) (data fd)
    • represent the storage of data. This is usually a file.
  20. A line with an arrow (data fd)
    •indicates the direction of the flow of data.
  21. What is end user computing?
    • refers to the ability of non-IT employeesto create their own computer applications,
    • is important for end-users to documentapplications they develop.
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