a&p exam 2.txt

  1. The skin is an?
  2. What is an organ?
    Structure formed by two or more tissues; has specific function and usually a recognizable shape
  3. Skin consists of?
    Dermis and epidermis
  4. Epidermis is
  5. Dermis is
    CT layer
  6. Papillary layer is
    Superficial; loose CT
  7. Reticular layer is
    Deeper; dense irregular CT
  8. What is hypodermis?
    • Subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
    • Not part of the skin
  9. What is the hypodermis composed of?
    Loose CT and white adipose tissue
  10. What is the function of the hypodermis?
    Binds the sin to the underlying tissues and structure, stores fat, acts as a shock absorber, insulates the body, and protects the body
  11. Fascia is what?
    Fibrous membrane covering, support and separating muscles
  12. What Aare the general functions of the skin?
    • Protection
    • Receive stimuli
    • Excretion
    • Temp regulation
    • Synthesis is vit D
    • Immunity
  13. Skin + its derivatives = what?
    Integumentary system
  14. What is a system?
    • A set of interconnected or interdependent organs working together to perform a common function
    • What is the epidermis?
    • Outer layer of skin
  15. What type of epithelium is the dermis?
    Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  16. What are the 4 types of cells found in the epidermis?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Angerhan�s cells
    • Merkel cells
  17. Keratinocytes are found?
    Throughout the epidermis
  18. Meanocytes are found?
    In the deepest layer of the epidermis
  19. Where are lagerhan�s cells (epidermal dendritic cells) found primarily?
    Stratum spinosum
  20. Name some characteristics about langerhan�s cells
    • Star shaped
    • Bone marrow derive
    • Phagocytic cells (antigen presenting)
    • Interact with T cells (immune response)
  21. Where are Merkel cell primarily found?
    In the think skin; epidermal and dermal junction (palms and soles)
  22. Name some characteristics about Merkel cells
    • Structurally associated to langerhan�s cells but have small dense granules in cytoplasm
    • Associated with disc-like ending of a sensory nerve
  23. Merkel cells + sensory nerve =
    • merkel disc
    • Touch receptor
  24. What are the layers of the keratinocytes in the epidermis of the think skin?
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum lucidum
    • Stratum granulosum
    • Stratum spinosum
    • Stratum basale
  25. What is the stratum corneum
    • Flattened non-nucleated, keratinized cells
    • �horny cells�
    • Protective layer
  26. What is the stratum lucidum?
    Thick skin, flattened dead cells, no nucleus, no organelles
  27. What is the stratum granulosum?
    2-5 rows of cells with granules, nucleus and organelles start designating
  28. What is the stratum spinosum?
    8-10 rows of cells; many junctional complexes, �prickle cells�
  29. What is the stratum basale?
    Base layer, single layer of cells, rest on the BL, mitosis is active, therefore continually renews cells
  30. On the slides all skin areas will typically show:
    Stratum basale, stratum spinousm, and stratum corneum
  31. Meanocytes are located where?
    Stratum basale and stratum spinosum or in the dermis
  32. Melanocytes send processes between________.
  33. Melanocytes produce _________?
  34. In the process of melanin production Tyrosinase converts
    Tyrosine into a melanin precursor within a melanin granule
  35. Melanin granules are transferred to
  36. Granules accumulate in the __________________ region of the cytoplasm thus shielding the DNA of the dividing cell (and underlying tissue) from damage, potentially carcinogenic UV radiation.
  37. Melanin granules fuse with Lysosomes in the area; lysosomal enzymes breakdown the melanin and melanin is
    Lost in upper epithelial cells.
  38. What are the pigments that contribute to your skin color?
    • Melanin
    • Carotene
    • Hemoglobin
  39. Melanin is?
    The only pigment produced by the skin
  40. Carotene is what?
    Yellow to orange pigment
  41. What area does carotene accumulate?
    Stratum corneum and in hypodermis
  42. What is hemoglobin?
    Oxyhemoglobyn in erythrocytes � red
  43. The number of Melanocytes per unit area is not influenced by sex or race. Differences in individual skin color may be related to?
    • Amount of pigment produced and dispersed
    • Number of melanin granules in Keratinocytes
    • (Rate of degradation)
  44. Tanning refers to a darkening of the kin after exposure to UV light. This process involves?
    • Darkening of pre existing melanin and increase the rate of release
    • Increased rate of synthesis
    • UV light ?increase of Tyrosinase activity and increased melanin production
  45. Albinism refers to the inability to produce melanin. What are some characteristics of this?
    • Inherited
    • Lacking Tyrosinase, or cant absorb tyrosine
    • Skin not protected from solar radiation, increased risk of skin cancer
  46. Dermis is composed of CT, supports the epithelium, bound to the hypodermis, what does it contain?
    BV, nerves, glands, and hair follicles
  47. The dermo-epidermal junction is not smooth because of
    Dermal papillae (DP)
  48. Dermal papillae interdigitate with
    Epidermal pegs
  49. Epidermal pegs are
    Extensions of the epidermis into the dermas
  50. Dermal papillae are
    Projections of the dermis into the epidermis
  51. Dermal papillae increase the SA of contact and thusly
    Reinforce the junction
  52. The dermis has to layers with indistinct boundaries which are the
    • Papillary layer
    • Reticular layer
  53. The papillary layer has what kind of thickness?
    Superficial thin layer
  54. The papillary layer has what kind of CT?
    Loose CT � fibroblasts, mast cells and macrophages
  55. Papillary layer has dermal papillae which may contain
    Capillaries, free nerve endings and Meisners� corpuscle

    • Describe the Meissner�s corpuscle
    • Elongated receptor with a multilaminar stacking of supporting cells around a sensory nerve ending
    • Touch receptors
  56. What is the reticular layer? And what kind of CT?
    Deep thicker layer, dense irregular CT
  57. Describe dense irregular CT found in the reticular layer?
    Bundles of collagen and elastic fiver with fewer cells,
  58. In between interlacing fibers of the CT in the reticular layer there are?
    • White adipose tissue
    • Nerves
    • Vessels
    • Epidermal derivatives
    • Pacinian corpuscles
  59. What is a Pacianian corpuscle?
    • Round receptor with a concentric layering of supporting cells around a sensory nerve ending
    • Pressure receptor
  60. The fiber arrangement and composition of the reticular layer gives skin?
    Strength, extensibility (ability to stretch), elasticity (ability to return to original shape and expands/contact
  61. Innervations of he skin?
    • Afferent or sensory innervations
    • Efferent or motor innervations
  62. What are adherent or sensory innervations?
    • Touch, pressure, temp and pain sensations
    • Meisner's and Pacinian � free nerve endings
  63. Efferent or motor interaction?
  64. Act on Integumentary effectors
    • Goosebumps or sweating
    • Effectors: muscle or gland
  65. Rich blood supply of the dermis involves?
    Rich capillary network in the papillary region � nourish epidermis � temp regulation
  66. Epidermal derivates include
    • Structures formed for the epidermis � hair nails and skin
    • Integumentary glands
    • Sudoriferous or sweat glands
  67. Sebaceous gland is associated with?
    A hair follicle
  68. What type of gland is a sebaceous gland?
    • Simple branched alveolar gland
    • Secretary portion in dermis
  69. The duct of the sebaceous gland empties:
    Neck of hair follicle, directly on skin
  70. Sebum has what kind of secretion?
    • Holocrine
    • Accumulated lipids and cell fragments
  71. Sebum acts as a?
    Protective film
  72. What does sebum do for the skin and hair?
    Prevents drying, and keeps skin soft. Kills certain bacteria.
  73. Sudorigerous or swear glands are widely distributed. There are 2 types
    Eccrine sweat gland and apocrine sweat gland
  74. Eccrine sweat glands are found everywhere except
    Margins of lips, nipples, parts of external genitalia
  75. What is the structure of the Eccrine?
    Simple coiled tubular gland
  76. What kind of secretion do Eccrine glands do?
    Merocrine secretion
  77. Describe the sweat of the Eccrine gland. And what it contains.
    Watery, water, salts, and metabolic waster
  78. What does the Eccrine gland help aid in?
    Evaporative heat loss and waste elimination
  79. Eccrine glands function thought-out life. True or false?
  80. Apocrine sweat glands are found where?
    Axilla and anogenital regions
  81. What is the structure of the apocrine gland?
    Simple branched tubular
  82. Describe the sweat of the apocrine gland. And what it contains
    More viscous. Contains true sweat and fatty substances and proteins
  83. Apocrine glands begin to function at puberty, true or false?
  84. What is a modified sweat gland?
    Ceruminous glands
  85. Ceruminous gland is found where?
    External auditory meatus
  86. What is the structure of the ceruminous gland?
    Simple coiled tubular gland
  87. What kind of secretion does the ceruminous gland do?
    Apocrine secretion
  88. What is cerumen?
    Ear wax
  89. What is excreted by the cerumenious gland?
    Semi solid fatty substance that prevents the eardrum from drying
  90. Hair is what?
    Elastic, cornified threads composed of protein
  91. How does hair grow?
    Discontinuously (periods of rest periods of growth) from hair follicle
  92. The hair is associated with what?
    Sebaceous gland and the arrector pili muscle
  93. Nails are?
    Flat cornified scales
  94. What is the function of our nails?
    Protective protein coverings over distal phalanges
  95. Small injury in the skin involves the
    • Parenchyma
    • Cells enlarge and migrate across the wound
  96. Cells continue to migrate until they are surrounded by other epithelial cells during skin wound healing what is it stopped by?
    �contact inhibition�
  97. Mitosis of basal epidermal cells occurs in response to
    Epidermal growth factor which replaces migrated cells
  98. The wound is resurfaced and there is ____________ when the parenchyma is involved.
    No scar.
  99. Large (deep) wound � involves?
    Both the parenchyma and the stroma
  100. What is the inflammatory phase in wound healing?
    • Cot forms over the would and dries;
    • Fibrin seals it;
    • ends of cut held loosely together.
    • Epithelial cells migrate under the clot..
    • In the dermis : proliferation of cells and capillaries
  101. What is the migratory and proliferative phases in large wound heading?
    • Organization phase
    • Clot becomes a scab
    • Epidermis bridges wound
    • Fibroblasts migrate along fibrin threads and synthesize fibers (scar tissue)
    • Damaged BV will grow
    • Form granulation tissue
  102. Maturation phase or regerantion phase of the large wound healing .
    • Scab soughs of
    • Epidermis is restored
    • Dermal scar remains
  103. What is granulation tissue?
    Area of active CT that fills the wound; delicate pink tissue that includes capillaries, macrophages and fibroblasts.
  104. Skeletal tissue helps form?
    The framework of the body
  105. What is the function of skeletal tissue?
    • Support
    • Protect viscera
    • Movement
    • Provides sites of attachment for muscles
    • Storage
    • Houses bone marrow
  106. What does skeletal tissue store?
    Mineral salts (hydroxyaptites)
  107. Red bone marrow gets its color from?
    Presence of blood and blood forming cells
  108. What is present in the red bone marrow?
    Blood cells at different stages of development and some white adipose tissue
  109. What is the only type of marrow in neonates? And what does it do?
    Red bone marrow � active in production of blood
  110. Where is red bone marrow found in adults?
    • Flat bones, sternum, ribs, clavicles, and part of os coxa
    • Proximal end of humerous and femur
  111. What is the main function of red bone marrow?
    • Hematopoiesis � production of blood cells
    • Destruction of warn out erythrocytes
    • Storage (in macrophages ) of iron � form hemoglobin in breakdown
  112. Yellow bond marrow gets its color from?
    Abundance of white adipose tissue
  113. Most red bone marrow gradually changed into the yellow Varity and is present in?
    Many cavities of the bones
  114. Yellow bone marrow stored ?
    White adipose tissue
  115. Yellow bone marrow is not normally _________?
  116. Yellow bone marrow can be replaced with red bone marrow if?
    Severely bleeding or hypoxia
  117. Osseous tissue is
    Bone tissue
  118. As a connective tissue, bone tissue has?
    Matrix & cells
  119. What is in the matrix of bone tissue?
    Mineral salts, ground substance and collagen fivers
  120. In the mineral salts of bone tissue that is
    • Hygroxyapatites = calcium salts
    • Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate
  121. In the ground substance of bone tissue there is?
    • Hylauronic acid and chondrotin sulfate
    • What are the types of cells in bone tissue?
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteobast
    • Osteoclast
  122. What is an osteocyte?
    Mature bone cell
  123. What is an osteocyte encapsulated in?
    Laminae of mineralized bond matrix � occupies a lacuna
  124. What is a filopodial process?
    Process of osteocyte
  125. Fillopoial processes extend though? And are what?
    Canaliculi, and are small tubular channels; radiate from lacunae
  126. Processed of adjacent osteocytes are connected by junctional complexes which permit?
    Intercellular flow of ions and small molecules
  127. What is the function of the osteocyte?
    Maintained of bone matrix
  128. What is an osteobast?
    Immature bone cell
  129. What is the function of the osteoblast?
    Synthesis of organic component of bone matrix � bone deposition � ground substance and collagen fibers therefore osteoid
  130. Osteobasts are found where?
    Only on the surface of the bone tissue
  131. As osteobast release bone matrix what happens?
    • The cell becomes surrounded by matrix
    • Lacuna and canaiculi form.
    • Therefore it goes from osteoblast to osteocyte
  132. What is an osteoclast?
    Large, multinucleated, motile cell
  133. Where is an osteocast located?
    Only on the surface of bone tissue
  134. What is the function of the osteoclast?
    Bone resorption. Enzyme act on matrix and frees minerals
  135. What is Howship�s lacuna?
    Enzymatically etched depression
  136. What does the periosteum do?
    Covers outer surface of the bone except on the articular surfaces
  137. What is compact bone?
    Dense bone characterized by the presence of osteons
  138. What is spongy bone?
    Consists of bony spicules (trabeculae)
  139. Bone spicules (trabeculae) are what?
    Thin irregular plates of lamellar bone
  140. What is endosteum do?
    Lines cavities within bones
  141. Osteon (haversains system) is what?
    Structural and functional unit of compact bone; complex of concentric lamellae of bone tissue that surrounds a canal.
  142. Central canal
    Cana running though the core of each osteon; contains vessels and nerve fibers; runs parallel to the long axis of the bone; lined with endosteum
  143. What is concentric lamellae?
    Layers of bone matrix around the central canal
  144. What is interstitial lemellae?
    Layers of bone matrix that oxxu between osteons but are not associate with a central canal; remnant of a remodeled osteon
  145. What is a perforating canal (Volkmann�s canal)?
    Canal that runs at an angle across the long axis of a bone; connects the vascular and neural supplies of the periosteum to those in the central canals and marrow cavity; lined with endosteum
  146. Long bone definition and example
    • Tubular: length > width
    • Body (shaft) + 2 ends (concave or convex)
    • Femur
  147. Short bone definition and example
    • Cuboidal. Length = width
    • Usually 6 surfaces;
    • 4 or less articular and 2 or more for tendon/ligament attachment or vessel entry
    • Carpal bone
  148. Flat bone definition and example
    • Thin
    • 2 plats of compact bone with spongy bone and marrow between them
    • Most fat bones help to for the walls of cavities
    • bones of calavaria and sternum
  149. Irregular bone definition and example
    • Various shape
    • Vary in amounts o f compact bone and spongy bone
    • Vertebra
  150. Sesamoid bone
    • Round or oval
    • Develops in tendons
    • Often round where tendons cross the end of llong bones in limbs (protects tendons from excessive wear and change angle of tends as it passes to attachment point)
    • Patella
  151. Sutural or wormian bone
    • Small bone within the sutures of certain cranial bones
    • Accessory bones
  152. Heterotrophic bone
    • Not part o the make skeleton
    • Ma develop in certain soft tissues and organs due to disease
    • May form in scars and with chronic inflammation
    • TB � bony tissue in lungs
  153. Diaphysis is found what?
    • Shaft
    • Yellow bone marrow
  154. Epiphysis is found where and is what?
    Ends of long bones and is red bone marrow
  155. Metaphysis is?
    Where the epiphysis meets the diaphysis
  156. Articular cartilage is
    Hyaline cartilage on the articular surface
  157. What is endosteum?
    • Thin membrane that lines medullary cavity and canals
    • Osteoblasts, osteogrenic cells, osteoclasts and reticular fibers
    • Repair
  158. What is the periosteum?
    • Inner layer has osterenic potency (osteoblasts present)
    • Growth and repair
    • Outer layer is dense fibrous CT structure
    • Absent on articular surface
  159. Line, definition, function, specific example.
    • Straight linear elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Intertrochanteric line
  160. Ridge, definition, function, specific example.
    • Similar to a line, may be more pronounced
    • Attachment site
    • Medial supracondylar ridge
  161. Crest, definition, function, and specific example.
    • Very prominent linear elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Iliac crest
  162. Tuberacle , definition, function, specific example.
    • Small raised eminence
    • Attachment site
    • Greater tuberacle
  163. protuberance, definition, function, specific example.
    • Swelling or knob
    • Attachment site
    • External occipital protuberance
  164. Tuberosity , definition, function, specific example.
    • Large, round usually roughened elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Tibia tuberosity
  165. Mallelous, definition, function, specific example.
    • Hammerhead-like elevation
    • Attachment site
    • Medial malleolus
  166. Trochanter, definition, function, specific example.
    • Large blunt elevation; only on femur
    • Attachment site
    • Greater trochanter
  167. Spine , definition, function, specific example.
    • Sharp, slender process
    • Attachment site
    • Ischia spine
  168. Process, definition, function, specific example.
    • Prominence or projection
    • Forms joints and attachment sites
    • Transverse process
  169. Facet, definition, function, specific example.
    • Small, smooth, fat areas or surfaces
    • Forms joints
    • Articular facet for the rib on a thoracic vertebra
  170. Condyle , definition, function, specific example.
    • Large rounder articular prominence
    • Forms joints
    • Media condyle of femur
  171. Head, definition, function, specific example.
    • Rounded articular projection supposed on a constricted portion
    • Forms joints
    • Head of humerus
  172. Fossa, definition, function, specific example.
    • Shallow depression
    • Passageway; forms joints
    • Olecranon Fossa
  173. Sulcus or grove, definition, function, specific example.
    • Long furrow or ditch like depression
    • Passageway
    • Intertubercular grove
  174. notch, definition, function, specific example.
    • Indentation at the edge of a bone
    • Passageway; forms joints
    • Ulnar notch
  175. Foramen, definition, function, specific example.
    • Hole
    • Passageway
    • Mental foramen
  176. Canal definition, function, specific example.
    • Foramen that has length;; has an orifice at each end
    • Passageway
    • Hypoglossal canal
  177. Meatus , definition, function, specific example.
    • Tube like passageway that enters a structure but does not pass thought it
    • Passageway
    • External auditory meatus
  178. Fissure, definition, function, specific example.
    • Narrow, cleft like opening between adjacent parts of bones
    • Passageway
    • Superior orbital fissure
  179. Epicondyle, definition, function, specific example.
    • Prominence above a condyle
    • Attachment site
    • Medial epicondle of the humerus
  180. Paranasal sinus, definition, function, specific example.
    • Air filled cavity within a bone; connected to the nasal cavity
    • Produces mucus; lightens the skull bones; acts a s resonant chamber for sound
    • Frontal sinus
  181. Ramus, definition, function, specific example.
    • Projecting part of elongated process of a bone.
    • Attachment site
    • Mandibular ramus
  182. What does the axial skeleton incude?
    • Vertebral column
    • Skull
    • Hyoid bone
    • Ribs and sternum
    • Auditory ossicles
  183. Types of vertebrae?
    • True or movable
    • Fixed or false
  184. Name the true or movable vertebra, its location and how many there are.
    • Cervical � neck � 7
    • Thoracic � chest � 12
    • Lumbar � lower back � 5
  185. Name the false or fixed vertebra , the location and how many there are.
    • Sacral � sacrum � 5 fuse to form 1
    • Coccygeal � coccyx � 4 fuse to form 1
  186. What are primary curvatures?
    Present during fetal development
  187. What do primary curvatures include?
    Thoracic curvature and perice or sacral curvature
  188. What are secondary curvature?
    Develop postnataly
  189. What do secondary curvatures incude?
    Cervical curvature and lumbar curvature
  190. Cervical curvature characteristics
    • Anteriorly convex
    • Develops when a child can hold its head up(3-4mos) and sit upright (9mos)
  191. Lumbar curvature
    • Anteriorly convex
    • Develops when a child beings to walk
    • More often pronounced in females
  192. Why might abnormal spine curvatures occur?
    Defect, disease, pore posture, unequal pull on vertebra column
  193. What is kyphosis?
    • Hunchback
    • Dorsally exaggerated thoracic curve
  194. What is lordosis?
    • Sway back
    • Exaggerated lumbar curve
  195. What is scoliosis?
    • �twisted� disease
    • Exaggerated lateral curve
    • Primarily in thoracic area.
  196. Ligaments include:
    • Anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Posterior longitudinal ligament
    • Ligament flavum
  197. Describe anterior longitudinal ligament
    • Strong fibrous CT band that runs longitudinally along the anterior surfaces of the intervertebral discs and vertebral centre � firmly fixed
    • Atlas and base of skull ? pelvis surface or sacrum
    • Prevents hyperflection of vererbral column
    • If severely stretched in neck = whiplash
  198. Describe posterior longitudinal ligaments?
    • Narrow fibrous CT band that runs longitudinally along the posterior surfaces of interveterbral discs
    • Somewhat weaker then the anterior longitudinal ligament � loosely attached
    • Atlas to sacrum inside the vertebral column
    • Prevents hyperflection of vertebral column
    • Describe Ligamen flavum?
    • Broad, fibrous (elastic) CT bands joining laminae of adjacent vertebra
    • Axis to sacrum
    • Helps to preserve upright posture
  199. Intervertebreal disc is a ?
    Cushion like pad between vertebrae
  200. Anulus fibrosus
    • Concentric layers of fibrocartilage
    • Holds adjacent vertebrae together, proved stability, and limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus
  201. Nucleus pulposus
    • Gelatinous core of intevertebral disc
    • Acts as a shock absorber (becomes broader when compressed)
  202. Note: herniated (prolapsed) disc =
    Rupture of annulus and protrusion of nucleus
  203. What is a centrum (body)
    • Largest part
    • Anterior directed
    • Superior and inferior surfaces are roughened for disc attachment
  204. Verebral forman?
    • Opening posterior to centrum on a single vertebra.
    • When formina are in series the vertebral canal is formed � houses spinal cord
  205. Vertebral arch (neural)?
    Ach of bone that bridges the vertebral foramen posteriorly
  206. Vertebral arch consists of what parts?
    • Pedicles
    • Aminae
  207. What is a pedicle?
    Bases or sides of the vertebral arch
  208. What is a laminae?
    Roof of the arch
  209. What are the processes on a typical vertebrae?
    • Spinous process
    • Transverse process
    • Articular process
  210. What is the spinous process?
    • Projects posterior from the midline of the neural arch
    • Arises as the junction of the laminae
  211. What is the transverse process?
    Projects laterally from the point where each lamina meets its pedicle.
  212. What is the superior articular process?
    • Projects cranially
    • Each has an articular facet 9smooth joint surface on the articular process)
  213. What is the inferior articular process?
    • Projects caudally
    • Each has articular facet (smooth joint surface on the articular process)
  214. The inferior articular process of one vertebra articulates with the superior articular process of the vertebra below.
  215. Superior vertebra notch
    Constrict on the superior border of the pedicle
  216. Inferior vertebra notch
    Constricts on the inferior border of the pedicle
  217. The intervebral foramen serves as?
    A place for the spinal nerves to pass thought
  218. Points of articulation on vertebra
    • Superior articular process � 5th lumbar vertebra
    • Apex of sacrum - coccyx
    • Auricular surfaces � illium of os coxa
    • Articular lateral surface � sacroiliac joint
  219. Dorsal surface ridges: Medial sacral crest
    Midline formed by fusion of spinous process
  220. Dorsal surface ridges: Lateral sacra crest:
    Lateralmost; remnant of transverse process
  221. Intermediate sacral crest
    • In between represents fused articular processes
    • Just medial to dorsa sacral foramina
  222. What is the Dorsa Sacral Foramina?
    A series of openings between the intermediate sacral crest and lateral sacral crest
  223. What is the sacral hiatus?
    an upside down V shaped opening at the inferior end; point where lower laminae failed to fuse
  224. What is the sacral promontory?
    Projection from anterosuperior edge of the centrum of the first sacral vetebra
  225. What is the ventral (pelvic) sacral foramina?
    A series of openings that face anteriorly
  226. What is the transverse lines (ridges)
    Series of ridges; represents function lines for sacral vertebrae
  227. What is the sacral canal?
    • Continuation of the vertebral canal into the sacrum; deep to the medial sacral crest
    • Sacral hiatus at the inferior end of sacral canal
  228. What is the coccyx?
    • Tail bone
    • Provides attachment site for muscles of the perineum and Gluteal group
  229. What is the bony thorax?
    Bony cage formed by sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, and centra of thoracic vertebra.
  230. Name the components of the sternum.
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
    • Juguar notch
    • Clavicular notch
    • Cotal notches
    • Sternal angle
  231. What are the components of the rib?
    • Head, superior and inferior articular facets.
    • Neck
    • Tubercle with articular facet
    • Angle of rib
    • Body of rib
    • Costal grove
    • Costal end
  232. How to tell if the rib is the right or the left one?
    Grove needs to be down and in.
  233. Skull is held together by which bones?
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  234. What are flat bones?
    • Held together by sutures
    • Form cranium
  235. What are irregular bones?
    • United by sutures
    • Form face and base of cranium
  236. Name the 8 cranial bones.
    Occipital bone, parietal bones(2), frontal bone, temporal bones (2), sphenoid, ethmoid.
  237. What is the calvaria (�cranial vault� =
    • Skull cap
    • Skull lacking the lower jaw and facial portion
    • Forms the forehead & superior, lateral, and posterior parts of the skull
  238. Cranial base or floor
    Caranial fossae (3) are here
  239. Name the 14 facial bones
    Maxillary bones (2), palatine bones (2), Nasal bones (2), inferior nasal conchae (2), zygomatic bones (2), lacimal bones (2), vomer, mandible.
Card Set
a&p exam 2.txt
A&P Exam 2