Health and Wellness

  1. What is Physical Fitness?
    • Physical fitness is defined as the
    • ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without
    • undue fatigue and with ample energy to engage in leisure
    • time
    • pursuits, and to meet the above average
    • physical stresses encountered in emergency
    • situations.
  2. What is Wellness?
    • Wellness is that condition of the
    • human being which considers its health, disease status & risk
    • potential. Generally, with a higher
    • level of fitness there is a higher level of wellness. Achieving fitness & wellness is related
    • to lifestyle habits such as diet & exercise.
  3. What are the Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness?
    •Cardiorespiratory fitness

    •Body composition


    •Absolute strength

    •Dynamic strength
  4. What are the Motor Skill Related Components of Physical Fitness?





  5. How can you determine where you fall on the Wellness Continuum?
    •How you feel

    •How you look

    •Physical fitness test

    •Comprehensive physical exam
  6. What are the leading causes of death in the USA today among males?
    A - Cardiovascular Disease

    B - Cancer

    C - Accidents

    D - COPD

    E - Pneumonia/Influenza
  7. What are the leading causes of death in the USA today among females?
    A - Cardiovascular Disease

    B - Cancer

    C - COPD

    D - Pneumonia/Influenza

    E - Diabetes Mellitus
  8. What % of all deaths prior to age 65 are preventable and unnecessary?
  9. What can be preserved through maintaining physical fitness throughout one's lifetime?
    Health and functionality.
  10. How long of an advantage do physically active people have over a sedentary person?
    • The physically active person has
    • about a 20 year advantage in terms of function over a sedentary person.
  11. What are the 12 ways to improve the odds of a lifetime of good health?
    •Stop drugs, smoking and chewing tobacco

    •Limit or eliminate alcohol

    •Exercise regularly

    • •Eat less animal fat, cholesterol, &
    • sodium

    • •Eat more complex carbohydrates and drink
    • more water.

    •Achieve and maintain ideal body weight.

    • •Take appropriate supplements including
    • calcium and the antioxidant vitamins.

    •Fasten seat belts

    •Limit sunlight exposure or wear sunblock

    •Get immunizations

    •Obtain good pre-natal health care

    • •Get regular medical check-ups and self
    • exams
  12. What have health care costs done since 1995?
    Since 1995, U.S. health care costs have exceeded 1 trillion dollars a year!
  13. What are the 3 principles of exercise?
    • Overload
    • Progression
    • Specificity
  14. What are the 3 components to exercise?
    • Warmup
    • Workout
    • Cool-down
  15. What are some of the health-related benefits to exercise?
    • Fight obesity
    • reduced risk of premature death
    • 20 year physiological advantage
    • reduced risk of heart disease
    • strengthens heart
    • increases bone density
    • reduced risk of high blood pressure
    • reduced risk of certain types of cancer
    • etc
  16. Define the thresholds of training.
    • Frequency - how often one exercises
    • Intensity - how hard one exercises
    • Time - how long one exercises
  17. What are the F.I.T. guidelines?
    • Flexibility - 3-7 days/week
    • Strength - 2-4 days/week
    • Cardiovascular - 3-6 days/week
  18. Identify the 4 types of cardiovascular disease.
    • Coronary Heart Disease
    • Cerebrovascular Disease
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Peripheral Vascular Disease
  19. Identify the major coronary risk factors.
    • elevated cholesterol
    • hypertension
    • cigarette smoking
    • diabetes
    • family history
    • sedentary lifestyle
    • obesity
  20. What makes law enforcement officers at greater risk for coronary heart disease?
    • Inactive lifestyle
    • 16-20% higher blood pressure
    • higher rate of smoking
    • stress
  21. What are the two types of stress?
    • Eustress - positive stress
    • Distress - negative stress
  22. What 4 areas are signs and symptoms of stress found in?
    • Physical
    • Emotional
    • Cognitive
    • Behavioral
  23. How do you conduct tactical breathing?
    • Breathe in for 5 seconds
    • Hold for 5 seconds
    • Release breath for 5 seconds
    • Rinse and repeat 3 times for guaranteed relaxation
  24. What are the 4 reputable sources fo nutrition information?
    American Heart Association

    American Cancer Society

    American Medical Association

    American Diabetes Association
  25. Poor nutrition can lead to...?


    Cardiovascular Disease


    Type 2 Diabetes


  26. What are Carbohydrates?
    Required by all cells as fuel for energy

    Types of Carbohydrate:

    Simple (soft drinks, candy, table sugar)

    Complex (fruit, pasta, rice, breads, vegetables, legumes)

    Dietary carbohydrate is converted to glucose during digestion

    Should comprise 55-60% of daily calories for most people (emphasize complex)
  27. What are Proteins?
    • Proteins
    • are large, complex molecules made up of building blocks called amino acids.
    • Proteins are used to build and repair tissues and substances in the body (skin,
    • enzymes, muscles, antibodies, hormones)
  28. What are the functions of fat?
    Provides fuel for energy

    Transports and stores fat soluble vitamins

    Provides essential fatty acids

    Insulates body

    Protects vital tissues and organs
  29. What are the characteristics of Saturated Fat?
    Usually solid at room temperature

    Sources are animal products & tropical oils

    Tends to increase LDL cholesterol levels

    Major culprit in CVD & certain types of cancer
  30. What are some characteristics of Monounsaturated Fat?
    A heart healthy fat, liquid at room temperature

    Comes from vegetable sources

    Canola, olive & peanut oil, avocados

    Decreases LDL, and increases HDL
  31. What are some characteristics of Polyunsaturated Fat?
    Liquid at room temperature

    Comes mainly from vegetable sources

    Safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean oil

    Tend to lower LDL, may lower HDL

    • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote
    • vasodilation and inhibit blood clot formation.
    • Fatty fish and flaxseed are good sources of these heart healthy fatty
    • acids
  32. What are some characteristics of Fat Soluble Vitamins?
    Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K

    Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance)

    Stored in liver and fat

    Overdoses can be toxic (A and D)
  33. What are some characteristics of Water Soluble Vitamins?
    Consist of B complex and vitamin C

    Can be stored to some extent

    Excesses will be excreted in the urine

    Niacin can be toxic to liver when ingested in unusually large amounts
  34. What is the relationship between Free Radicals and Antioxidants?
    • Free radicals are harmful substances that are produced by the body as byproduct of several different chemical reactions.
    • Upon their formation, they are either neutralized or attach to cell membranes causing destructive changes.

    • There is strong evidence that antioxidants (vitamins C & E, the mineral selenium, & phytochemicals) offer some protection against cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer by neutralizing free
    • radicals
  35. What are the several ways to determine if one is overweight?
    • Height/Weight tables
    • Body Mass Index
    • Fat Patterning
    • Body Composition
  36. What are the 3 main components to the treatment of obesity?
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Behavior Modification
  37. What are some of the reasons for increased risk of low back pain in officers?
    • sedentary nature of work tasks
    • low fitness levels
    • wearing duty gear around the waist
    • sitting in vehicles
    • standing for long periods of time
  38. What are the functional implications of lower back pain?
    • Disability
    • Dysfunction
    • Absenteeism
    • Decreased productivity
  39. What are the structures of the spine?
    • Vertebrae
    • discs
    • spinal nerve
    • arteries
    • ligaments
    • musculature
  40. What are the reasons for exercising?
    • Health/fitness
    • enjoyment
    • relaxation
    • challenge
    • social
    • appearance
    • competition
  41. What are the reasons for not exercising?
    • Lack of time
    • inconvenient
    • lack of enjoyment
    • poor health/unfit
    • lack of facilities
    • weather
Card Set
Health and Wellness
77th Academy Bluedogs