1. endocrine gland function
    • secretes chemical substances directly into the blood.
    • Theeffects of the endocrine glands tend to be widespread.

    • secretes chemical substances directly into the blood.
    • Theeffects of the endocrine glands tend to be widespread.

  2. exocrine gland
    • secretes chemical substances to nearby tissues through
    • a duct. The effects of the exocrine glands tend to be localized
  3. Hypothalamus location
    • the junction between the central
    • nervous system and the endocrine system.
  4. Its cells also receive messages from the autonomic nervous system to detect blood pressure, blood glucose level and share information with the central nervous system
  5. its hormones stimulate the secretion of pituitary hormones that effect even another endocrine gland
  6. This gland responds
    to impulses from the autonomic nervous system by releasing hormones such as
    Growth hormone releasing and inhibiting.
    - Corticotropin releasing hormone.
    - Thyrotropin releasing hormone.
    - Gonadotropin releasing hormone
    - Prolactin inhibiting and releasing hormone
  7. This gland known as the “master gland,” is divided into the posterior and anterior lobes
  8. the posterior pituitary lobe responds
    to nerve impulses from the _____
    the anterior responds to
    • -hypothalamus
    • - hormones of the hypothalamus.
  9. the posterior pituitary lobe produces this hormone which causes water retention and also this other hormone which causes uterine contraction and lactation
    • -antidiuretic hormone
    • -oxytocin
  10. these hormones produced by
    -Adrenocorticotropic hormone – targets the adrenal cortexes
    -Thyroid stimulating hormone – targets the thyroid
    -Follicle stimulating hormone – targets gonads and sex organs
    -Luteinizing hormone – targets gonads
    -Prolactin – targets mammary glands of women
    -Growth hormone – targets almost all cells in body
    anterior pituitary lobe
  11. This gland releases hormones to increase the rate of cell metabolism.
  12. these hormones are associated with
    Thyroxine – stimulates cell metabolism
    Triiodothyronine – stimulates cell metabolism
    Calcitonin – lowers blood calcium levels
    thyroid gland
  13. These glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones. Blood calcium levels are increased
  14. pancreas endocrine and exocrine functions
    • endocrine - alpha cells produce glucagon,
    • beta produces insulin
    • exocrine tissue known as acini secrete digestive
    • enzymes to aid in the digestion of fats
    • and protein in the small intestine

  15. These glands aid in the body’s reaction to stress and danger
  16. the adrenal gland is divided into 2 divisions
    • - adrenal medulla - Catecholaminehormones- epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • - adrenal cortex - Glucocorticoids – cortisol- Mineralcorticoids– aldosterone-
    • Androgenic hormones
  17. This gland is responsible for the release of the melatonin hormone which plays a role in controlling the reproductive biological clock. may also effect a persons mood
  18. Type 1 diabetes. IDDM
    when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar.
  19. Type II diabetes NIDDM
    • when cells of body do not respond correctly to insulin marked by high levels of glucose in blood. this is the most common form of DM
  20. The first signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include
    diuresis causing:
    frequent urination, dry warm skin. feeling of excessive thirst hunger
  21. complication associated with Type II DM where both insulin and glucagon activity are present.
    • HHNK coma hyperglycemic hyperosmolar
    • nonketotic coma.
  22. seizure that occurs when brain cells are not functioning normally due to low blood glucose
  23. excessive secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in an increased metabolic rate
  24. usually caused by Graves Disease, condition that reflects prolonged exposure to excess thyroid hormones with resultant changes in body structure and function.
  25. inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in a decreased metabolic rate
  26. condition that reflects long-term exposure to inadequate levels of thyroid hormones with resultant changes in body structure and function
  27. puffy face and skin that looks doughy are symptoms of this condition
  28. insulin shock reflects high insulin and low blood glucose
  29. endocrine disorder characterized by excess thyroid hormones resulting in body changes associated with increased metabolism; primary cause of
    Graves' disease
  30. aka thyroid strom - toxic, life threatening emergency that can be fatal within as few as 48 hours in untreated. characterized by hyperthermia, tachycardia, nervous symptoms, and rapid metabolism
    thyrotoxic crisis
  31. life threatening condition associated with advanced myxedema, with profound hypothermia, bradycardia, and electrolyte imbalance.
    myxedema coma
  32. condition resulting from excess adrenocortical hormones. symptoms may include changes body habitus, hypertension, vulnerability to infection.
    Cushing's syndrome
  33. endocrine disorder characterzed by adrenocortical insufficiency. symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight loss, weight loss, hyperpigmentation
    of skin and mucous membranes.
    Addison's disease.
  34. form of shock associated with adrenocortical insufficiency and characterized by profound hypotension and electrolyte imbalance
    Addison's crisis
  35. signs and symptoms of this condition include agitation, emotional changeability, insomia, poor heat tolerance, weight loss despite increased appetite. new onset A-fib, protusion of eye balls, goiter
    Graves' disease
  36. signs and symptoms include increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. high fever 106 degrees
    thyrotoxic crisis AKA thyroid storm
  37. condition AKA hyperadrenalism
    cushing's syndrome
  38. condition presenting with moon faced appearance, buffalo hump
    cushing's syndrome
  39. adrenal insufficiency, cortical destruction. condition called
    Addison's disease
  40. hormone that drives and increase in blood glucose
    glucagon - agon - to drive
  41. complex carbo that is source of much of the blood glucose produced between meals. stored in liver
  42. breakdown of glygogen to glucose, primarily by liver cells
  43. conversion of protein and fat to form glucose.
    New glucose molecules are synthesized from nonsugar sources through this process.
    • gluconeogenesis
  44. Glucocorticoid where 95% of adrenocortical hormome production is
  45. most important mineralocorticoid that contributes salt and fluid balance in the body by regulating sodium and potassium excretion through the kidneys
  46. endocrine glands chiefly responsible for sexual maturation of puberty and reproduction
  47. when sympathetic nerves carry an impulse in the adrenal medulla, its cells respond by secreting _____
    the catecholamin hormone epinephrine and norepi
  48. steroidal homones secreted by
    adrenal cortex
  49. kidneys have some endocrine function. kidney cells that will react to a decrease in blood volume or pressure by releasing the enzyme
  50. dominant hormone when blood glucose level is
  51. dominant hormone when blood glucose level is low
  52. major effects of insulin on target tissues 2
    • 1. all cells uptake glucose
    • 2. in the liver - increase in production of glycogen,
    • protein, fat
  53. compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids, including acetoacetic acid, B-hydroxybutyric acidm, and acetone.
    ketone bodies
  54. the presence of significant quantities o ketone
    bodies in the blood.
  55. deficeincy of blood glucose AKA insulin shock
  56. excessive blood glucose
    • hyperglycemia
  57. greatly increased urination and dehydration that results when high levels of glucose cannot be reabsorbed ino the blood from the kedney tubules and the osmotic pressure of the glucos in the tubules also prvents water
    osmotic diuresis
  58. formation and secretion of large amounts of urine
  59. glucose in urine, which occurs when blood glucose levels exceed the the kidney's ability to reabsorb glucose
  60. excessive thirst
  61. eating too much, excessive hunger
  62. complication that occurs when there is a profound insulin deficeincy coupled with increased glucagon activity.
    diabetic ketoacidosis
  63. common causes of this include/
    - excessive administration of insulin
    - excess insulin for dietary intake
    - overexertion, resulting in lowered blood glucose levels
  64. common causes of this include:
    - stress such as infection or stroke producing hyperglycemia and a noncompensated diuresis, modualated by both insulin and glucagon activity
    • HHNK
  65. common causes of this include;
    -cessation of insulin injections
    -stress such as infection or surgery that releases catecholemines potentiating glucagon effiects and blocking insulin effects.
    diabetic ketoacidosis
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