1. somatic nervous system
    • governs voluntary functions
  2. autonomic nervous system
    includes sympathetic parasympathetic nervous system
  3. basic unit of nervous system
  4. anatomy of a neuron stimulated by environmental changes or the activities of other cells
  5. anatomy of a neuron that contains the nucleus and most of the metabolic machinery (mitochondria, ribosomes, ext
  6. anatomy of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses (action potential) away from the soma
  7. anatomy of a neuron that affects another neuron or effector (muscle, gland, etc.
    • synaptic terminals
  8. a substance that is released from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron upon excitation and that travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. EX: acetylcholine, norepi, dopamine
  9. membranes covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord. They consist of the pia mater, arachnoid membrane, and dura mater.
  10. tough outermost layer of meninges
    dura mater
  11. middle layer of the meninges
    arachnoid membraine
  12. delicate innermost layer of the meninges
    pia mater
  13. watery, clear fluid that acts as a cushion, protecting the brain and spinal cord from physical impact. this also serves as an accessory circulatory system for the central nervous system.
    cerebrospinal fluid
  14. largest part of brain with 2 hemispheres. is seat of consciousness and the center of higher mental functions such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, intelligence, and emotions.
  15. portion of brain lying beneath the cerebrum an dabove teh brainstem. It contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system
    • diencephalon
  16. part of the brain connecting the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. consists of the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
  17. portion of the brain connecting the pons and cerebellum with the cerebral hemispheres, also called the midbrain,
  18. portion of the brain that controls motor coordination and eye movement. AKA midbrain
  19. located between the midbrain and teh medulla oblongata, contains connections between the brain and the spinal cord.
  20. lower portion of brainstem, connecting pons and spinal cord, contains major centers for control of respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor activity.
    • medulla oblongata
  21. portion of brain dorsal to pons plays important role in fine motor movement, posture, equilibrium, and muscle tone
  22. part of brain responsible for speech, vision, personality, motor
  23. part of brain responsible for balance and coordination,
  24. system responsible for consciousness. A series of nervous tissues keeping the human sytem in a state of consciousness
    RAS reticular activating system
  25. carrying impulses toward the central nervous system. Sensory Nerves
  26. carrying impulses away from the brain or spinal cord to the perifery. Motor nerves
  27. area of the skin innervated by spinal nerves
  28. involuntary component of peripheral nervous system
    autonomic nervous system
  29. any malfunction of damage of the peripheral nerves. results may include muscle weakness, loss of sensation, impaired reflexes, and internal organ malfunctions
    • peripheral neuropaty
  30. a breathing pattern characterized by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 seconds followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations.
  31. rapid deep respirations caused by severe metabolic and CNS problems.
  32. hyperventilation caused by a lesion in the central nervous system, often characterized by rapid, deep, noisy respirations.
    central neurogenic hyperventilation
  33. poor respirations due to CNS damage, causing ineffective thoracic muscular coordination
    ataxic respirations
  34. breathing characterized by a prolonged inspiration unrelieved by expiration attempts seen in patients with damage to the upper part of the pons
    • apneustic respirations
  35. posture associated with a lesion at or about the upper brainstem. the pt presents with the arms flexed, fists clenched and legs extended.
    decorticate posture
  36. posture resulting from lesion in brainstem. Pt presents with stiff and extended extremities and retracted head.
    decerebrate posture
  37. a collective change in vital signs associated with increasing intracanial pressure:
    - increased blood pressure
    - decreased pulse
    - irregular respirations
    Cushing's triad
    • Acidosis
    • Epilepsy
    • Infection
    • Overdose
    • Uremia
    • Trauma
    • Insulin
    • Psychosis
    • Stroke
  39. condition characterized by loss of memory and disorientation, associated with chronic alcohol intake and a diet deficient in thiamine
    Wernick's syndroms
  40. psychosis characterized by disorientation, muttering delierum, insomnia, delusions, and hallucinations.
    Korsakoff's psychosis
  41. condition with symptoms of painful extremities, bilateral wrist drop, bilateral foot drop, and pain on pressure over the long nerves.
    Korsakoff's psychosis
  42. caused by ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions to a portion of the brain resulting in damage or destruction of brain tissue.
    • stroke
  43. tPA
    fibrinolytic agent tissue plasminogen activator used in treating heart attack and certain occlusive strokes
  44. 3rd most common cause of death in middle aged and older patients.
  45. 2 types of strokes
    occlusive and hemorragic
  46. thrombotic stroke
    cerebral thrombus is a blood clot that gradually develops in and obstructs a cerebral artery. plaque builds up and clot develops in narrowed artery
  47. embolic stroke
    • solid, liquid, or gaseous mass carried to blood vessel from a remote site. occure suddenly and often with severe headace.
  48. hemmorrhagic stroke
    usually intracerebral (with the brain)or in space around outer surface of brain ( subarachnoid). sudden, severe headache.
  49. most intracranial hemmorhages occu in the ____ patient when small tissue ruptures
  50. predisposing factors that may contribute to stroke
    HTN, diabetes, abnormal blood lipid levels,oral contraceptive, sickle cell, a-fib
  51. transient ischemic attack
    temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain
  52. seizure that begins as an electrical discharge in a small area of the brain but spread to involve the entire cerebral cortex, causing widespread malfunction
    generalized siezure
  53. seizures that remain confined to a limited portion of the brain, causing localized malfunction. may spread and become generalized
    partial seizure
  54. AKA grand mal seizure. type of generalized seizure characteristic by rapid loss of consciousness and motor coordination, muscle spasms, and jerking motions
    tonic clonic seizure
  55. phase of seizure characterized by tension or contraction of muscles
    tonic phase
  56. phase of seizure characterized by alternating contraction and relaxing of muscles
    clonic phase
  57. type of generalized seizure with sudden onset, characterized by a brief loss of awareness and rapid recovery
    • absence seizure
  58. petit mal seizure AKA
    - presents with 10 to 30 second loss of consciousness or awareness.
    absence seizure
  59. subjective sensation preceding seizure activity
  60. phase of seizure where pt experiences extreme muscle rigidity, including hyperextension of back
    hypertonic phase
  61. when pt remains in coma after seizure
    post seizure
  62. postictal
    • when pt awakes from seizure confused and fatigued.
  63. hysterical seizure, stems from psychological disorders
  64. 2 types of partial seizure
    • simple partial seizure
    • complex partial seizure
  65. sometimes called focal motor, focal sensory, or Jacksonian seizure, characterized by chaotic movement of one areal of body. no loss of consciousness
    simple partial seizure
  66. sometimes called temporal lobe or psychomotor seizure characterized by distinctive auras including unusual smells, tastes, sounds, or objects appearing distant or near. may have deja vu
    complex partial seizure
  67. difference of syncope from seizure
    • -syncope usually begins in standing position
    • -pt remember warning signs, weak dizzy
    • -no jerking movements
    • -pt regains consciousness almost immediately when supine
  68. series of 2 or more generalized motor seizures without any intervening periods of consciousness
    status epilepticus
  69. transient loss of consciousness due to inadequate flow of blood to the brain with rapid recovery of consciousness upon becoming supine
  70. headache that includes migrains and cluster headache
    vascular headache
  71. dull headache that feels like forcefull pressure to neck or head
    tension headache
  72. headache caused by tumors, infection, or diseaseof brain, eye
    organic headache
  73. signs and symptoms of meningitis
    throbbing headache, fever, stiffness in neck, nause, vomiting
  74. a new or abnormal formation; a tumor
  75. collection of pus localized in an area of the brain
    • brain abscess
  76. collection of diseases that selectivly affect one or more functional systems of the CNS
    degenerative neurologic disorders
  77. degenerative brain disorder; the most common cause of dementia in the elderly
    alzheimer's disease
  78. group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscle fibers
    muscular dystrophy
  79. dengenerative brain disorder resulting from death of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex causing atrophy of brain. pts have short term memory loss. develop aphasia (inability to speak)
    • alzheimer's disease
  80. most common form of MD
  81. disease that involves inflammation fo certain nerve cells followed by demyelination, or destruction of the myelin sheath, which is the fatty insulation surrounding nerve fibers.
    multiple sclerosis
  82. group of disorders characterized by muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or freezing in the middle of an action.
  83. early symptoms include deterioriation of hand writing, foot cramps, dragging of one foot.
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