Cecil Pharm

  1. Side effects of metoclopramide
    -hyperactivity, restlessness, tremors, and constipation

    (horses and cats)
  2. ondansteron can ?????
    -control emesis induced by cisplatin, chemotherapeutic agents/radiation treatment in dogs, cats, and ferrets
  3. These block muscarinic receptors in emetic center and also inhibit PERIPHERAL transmission

    -it does NOT cross blood brain barrier
  4. drawbacks of anticholinergics
    • -delays gastric emptying (CONTRIBUTING FACTOR FOR INDUCING EMESIS)
  5. _____ Is a hormone produced by gastrin (G cells)

    -Stimulated by presence of food in the stomach (pH 3-3.5)
  6. What acts by inducing an increase in intracellular concentration of calcium, by increasing calcium influx through selective calcium channels in the cell membrane?
    Gastrin and Ach

    (as well as other direct acting muscarinic agonists such as bethanechol)
  7. Metoclopramide (dopamine antagoinst)......Tell me about it
    • -blocks peripheral sterotonin receptors
    • -anit emetic effect is blockade of NT in CTZ ****
    • -possesses cholinergic effects
    • -***Effectively antagonizes apomorphine induced emesis
  8. Metoclopramide has what bioavailability?
    50% due to extensive heapatic 1st pass metabolism
  9. Procholoreperazine mesilate (emesis due to gastritis)
    • contraindicated for animals with seizures (PHENOTHIAZINE DECREASES SEIZURE THRESHOLD)
    • SIDE EFFECTS: sedation and hypotension bc blocks the A2 receptors
  10. ____are a2 adrenergic receptor agonists with antidopaminergic and weak antihistamine and anticholinergic properties

    -broad spectrum antiemetics and can control emesis induced by most of the central causes other then labrinthine stimulation
  11. side effects of anti-hitaminergics
    -xerostomia (dryness of mouth)

  12. what are anticholinergics, antidopaminergics (block dopamine receptors at the CTZ) and antihistminergics?
    centrally acting antiemetics
  13. What is a centrally acting emetic IN CATS. Most commonly used for sedation. Given at low doses for emetics compared to high dose for sedation.

    Side effect = bradycardia
  14. What happens with excessive doses of apomorphine
    depresses CNS, particularly respiratory center and are contraindicated in animals with existing central depression
  15. what route of apomorphine is preferred and why?
    -conjunctival route is more preferred bc tablet can be removed once the animal vomits
  16. ______is a synthetic derivative of morphine, an opioid compound.

    Given only in dogs bc it causes marked excitement in cats
  17. An increase in ACH release =?

    * will NOT increase gastric acid/pancreatic secretion
    sensitizes smooth muscles for ACH action
  18. The main NT that transmits impulses from CTZ and Mo?
  19. what is my favorite country in the world?
  20. WHEN should you NOT use cholinergic drugs?
    • -when there is mechanical obstruction of the intestine or urinary tract
    • -in animals with peritonitis
    • -if intestinal wall is less variable
  21. ____adsorbs e. coli enterotoxin?
  22. ____ should NOT be administered concurrently with antacids bc it'll decrease gastric pH

  23. _____binds with epidermal growth factor and forms mucous layer over the ulcer?
  24. what does the drug slentrol do?
    anti-obesity drug in dogs
  25. Efferent signals that stimulate the emetic reflex descend to the stomach through which cranial nerve?
    • 10
    • (vagus)
  26. ocular effects of sulphapyridine can be avoided by using?
  27. ____ is the antacid choice in treatment in mild ruminal acidosis?
    aluminum hyroxide

    *** if severe systemic acidosis use sodium bicarb instead
  28. ____is a good adsorbant and antacid

    ***causes constipation too!
    aluminum salts
  29. when do you administer antacids?
    • -frequently, @ least 6 times a day
    • -especially bw meals and night to prevent rebound acid hyper-secretion
  30. ___does not alter the serum gastric levels. it prevents rebound acid hypersensitivitys****
  31. Adverse rxns of omeprazole?
    -inhibits cytochrome p450 enzyme and interferes w/metabolism of certain drugs

    **similar to cimetidine
    _____inhibits the H. K, ATPase proton pump on gastric parietal cells

    -final step for sec. of gastric acid
    omeprazol (prilosec)
  33. side effects of H2 antagon. in rebound acid hypersecreation
    h2 receptor antag. leads to decreased gastric acid secretions leading to increased plasma gastrin level which stimulates gastric parietal cells leading to GASTRIC ACID HYPERSECRETION
  34. ___inhibits hepatic cytochrome p450 (major metabolic problem) and interferes with metabolism of concurrently administered drugs

    ***useful in preventing tylenol toxicity (increased bioavailability of other drugs)
  35. _____is 50% bioavailable for H2 receptor antag.

    **absorption is NOT impaired by foal (advantage)
  36. _____is the protype drug of reducing gastric secretion (h2 antag.)

    ***delays food absorption
  37. the order of potency of gastric acid inhibitors (h2 receptor antag)
    famotidine> ranitidine = nizatidine > cimetidine
  38. of the h2 receptor antagonists _______has the longest duration of action
  39. _____ leads to malabsorption of certain nutrients (vit. b12 and iron) bc change in pH
  40. ____is a dopamine antagonist

    -increases GI motility peripherally
  41. ____ increases the tone of the lower esophagus sphincter (tightly closed)

    -also penetrates blood brain barrier and *ANTAGONIZES CENTRAL DOPAMINE RECEPTORS
  42. ___are superior to anti-muscarinic agents for treatment of *NON-SPECIFIC RUNZZZ
  43. _____is well absorbed from GIT and penetrates the blood brain barrier. Extreme care must be taken in cats bc OD causes excitability and goose-stepping gate.
  44. ____ is used as an anti-diarrheal in fowls
  45. the combination of ____-______ ______ is dissolved in 20 parts h20. Its a demulcent and adsorbent which binds with bacteria and toxins
    kaolin-pectin product
  46. ____acts primarily as adsorbent. Broad spectrum of activity and its rapid action....considered best choice for ER treatment of posinings.

    -10:1 ratio
    activated charcoal
  47. ____ is the most common bulk forming laxative used in equines

    - increases movement of impactions caused by INGESTION OF SAND
  48. -contraindicated in dehydrated animals
    -3-12 hrs to work in mongastrics
    -18hrs to work in ruminants
    saline purgatives
  49. -poorly absorbed, but the amount absorbed can produce toxicity in animals with bad renal function
    magnesium hydroxide (milk of mag), a saline (osmotic) purgative
  50. repeated administration causes superpurgation in horses = NO REPEATED DOSES
  51. newborn foals pass ______ , their first stool 24-36 hrs postpartum
  52. substances that increase secretion of bile by the hepatocytes are called ______
  53. ____ stabilize the foam and are contra-indicated in frothy bloat
    fish oils
  54. ___ are clinically indicated for pruitis associated with increase in bile acids.

    adverse effects are nausea, constipation, and steatorrhea
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