1. How many mutations do you need to make a cancer cell?
  2. A word that means “progressively worsening disease”
  3. A model which says that every new mutation gives a cell a growth advantage
    Multistage model
  4. This model says that all cells in a tumor can be tumorogenic
    Stochastic model
  5. This model says that only some cells in a tumour can be tumorogenic
    Heirarchial model
  6. This theory says that tumor cells arise from stem cells
    Cancer stem cell hypothesis
  7. These proteins pump drugs back out of cells
    ABC transporters
  8. 6 hallmarks of cancer
    • Self sufficient growth
    • Avoid apoptosis
    • Limitless
    • Angiogenesis
    • Metastasis
    • Insensitive to ant-growth
  9. When a tumor spreads from one site to another
  10. This bunch of genes help proliferation
    • oncogenes
    • proto-oncogenes
    • 1 allele is enough to mess up
  11. This bunch of genes stop proliferation
    • Tumor suppressors
    • Both alleles are required to mess up
  12. This mutation in oncogenes makes cells way too active!
  13. What happens if you methylate the promoter?
    You prevent transcription
  14. This is an example of point mutations
  15. This is an example of gene deletion
    • EGF
    • no ligand binding domain
    • truncated C terminus
  16. Too much of this protein is found in breast cancer
    • HER2
    • to many signals are sent to the nucleus for growth
  17. This gene is also amplified with HER2 because its on the same chromosome
    Topo II
  18. A philli chromosome is a crossover of these two
    chromosomes 22 and 9
  19. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia patients might have this special chromosome
    • Phillidelphia chromosome
    • makes hybrid mRNA
    • Bcr1 Abl
  20. Making new unusual genes by mixing together chromosomes
    Chromosome rearrangement
  21. Follicular lymphoma patients have this protein in their B cells
  22. These chromosome cross over and put Bcl-2 gene next to a strong enhancer
    chromosomes 14 and 18
  23. If this gene is messed up, you get ataxia talengiectasia and many types of cancers
    • ATM gene
    • ATM activates repair machines i.e. p53 and BRCA1
Card Set
Cancer cells 1