The Supreme Court case which held that federal license to operate steamboats overrides a state-granted monopoly of New York water rights under the Constitution.
Define Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1819)
The Supreme Court case which established that state governments and state courts must abide by the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of the federal constitution.
Define McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
The Supreme Court case which established that Congress enjoys broad and extensive authority to make all laws which are necessary and proper to carry out its constitutionally delegated powers.
Define Block grants
Grants from the federal government to the states which may be used at the discretion of states to pursue more generalized aims.
Define Concurrent powers
Those powers shared by the federal and state governments under the Constitution.
A system of government (or league) in which two or more independent states unite to achieve certain specified common aims.
Define Cooperative federalism
The doctrine of federalism which affords Congress nearly unlimited authority to exercise its powers through means that often coerce states into administering and/or enforcing federal policies.
Define Dual federalism
The doctrine of federalism which holds that state authority acts as a limit on Congressional power under the Constitution, enumerated powers those powers which are expressly delegated to the national government by the Constitution.
The doctrine underlying a system of government in which power is divided between a central government and constituent political subunits.
Define Full faith and credit clause
the provision in Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution which forces states to abide by the official acts and proceedings of all other states.
Grants from the federal government to the states which allow state governments to pursue specific federal policies such as highway construction.
Define Layer cake federalism
Description of federalism as maintaining that the authority of state and federal governments exist in distinct and separate spheres.
Define Marble cake federalism
Description of federalism as intertwining state and federal authority in an inseparable mixture
Define National supremacy doctrine
Chief Justice John Marshall's interpretation of federalism as holding that states have extremely limited sovereign authority, while Congress is supreme within its own sphere of constitutional authority.
Define Necessary and proper clause
The clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, which affords Congress the power to make laws that serve as a means to achieving its expressly delegated powers.
The constitutional doctrine which holds that when Congress acts affirmatively in the exercise of its own granted power, federal laws supersede all state laws on the matter.
Define Reserved powers
Those powers expressly retained by the state governments under the Constitution.
The supreme political power of a government to regulate its affairs without outside interference.
Define Supremacy clause
The provision in Article VI, paragraph 2 of the Constitution which provides that the Constitution and federal laws override any conflicting provisions in state constitutions or state laws.
Define Unfunded mandate
A directive from the federal government to the states requiring that they perform certain functions, with no accompanying funds to support those functions.
Define Unitary system of government
A system of government in which the constituent states are strictly subordinated to the goals of the central government as a whole.