Intestines #2

  1. Bolus
    Ball of food material mixed with saliva
  2. Esophogus
    10 inches long
  3. Segmation
    Mixing with saliva
  4. Amylase
    • Enzyme saliva
    • Break down of carbs
  5. Carbia orfase
    Opening where the esophogus & diaphram meet
  6. Sphincter
    • Is a strong muscle
    • Pulses open and close
  7. Gerd
    • Heartburn
    • Ant-acid cure
  8. Esphogus mucosa
    Zig Zag fashion
  9. Advertitia
    ONLY in esophugus and retro organs
  10. Stomach copacity
    4 liters of food
  11. Heartburn
    Can be cause by over eating, puttin pressure on heart
  12. Acid from stomach
    can come back up to feel like heartburn
  13. Hiatal hernia
    • Stomach connection goes up instead of down
    • stomach puts pressure on heart
  14. ulser
    opening in layers of GI track
  15. Mastication
  16. Deglutition
  17. Stomach
    • bean shaped
    • big curve and small curve
  18. Fundus
    Top of stomach
  19. Plyorus
    Bottom of stomach
  20. Lesser Curvature
    small curve of stomach
  21. Greater curvature
    greater curve in stomach
  22. Mucosa
    Made of brougd finger like structures
  23. Rugae
    • fingers of mucosa
    • inner most layer
  24. Chym
    when bolus (ball of food) enters stomach its called chym
  25. Duodenum
    • Stomach extention
    • Gated by Pyloric pshincter
  26. Stomach wall
    • Mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  27. Mucosa layer
    • gastric pits
    • gastric glands
  28. Gastric gland
    • Parietal cellc
    • Cheif cell
    • Entero-endocrine cell
  29. Parietal cell (pac man)
    • Produce Hydrochloric acid HCL
    • Produces Intrinsic factor
  30. Intrinsic factor
    • Produced by parietal cell
    • chem. that helps absorbe vit B12
  31. Animea
    • low B12
    • low iron
  32. B12
    • helps RBC carry O2 which brings iron
    • hypo=animia
  33. Perineciouse animia
    Low production of B12 and Intrincic factor
  34. Gastric pits
    In mucosa layer-holes extend down to gastic gland
  35. "Gen" ending
    inactive enzyme
  36. Entero-endocrine
    More than 30 differnt enzymes
  37. Endorphine
    makes you feel good-chocolate
  38. Cheif cell
    • in gastric pits of stomach mucosa
    • main thing in stomach-inactive enzyme
  39. Pepsinogen
    inactive enzyme of the gastric pits of stomach
  40. Lipase
    • Enzyme of gastric pits of stomach
    • lipid breakdown
  41. Pepsin
    • Enzyme that works on protiens
    • Converted from pepsinogen to active enzyme by HCL
  42. Renin
    • in cheif cell of gatric cell
    • enzyme in children below 7
    • breaks cacien down
  43. Canien
    enzyme that breaks down milk
  44. Acid enviorment
    Stomach-hyrdocloric acid HCL
  45. Nuetral enviorment
    mouth is nuetral
  46. Binding in Parietal cell
    • Pushes hydrogen into stomach lumen H+
    • All HCO3- go into blood
  47. Alkaline tide
    • The pushing of hydrogen and HCO3- into stomach lumen
    • negative chage
  48. HCO3-
    kicked out of cell into blood
  49. Cl-
    is sent from blood to lumen to regulate blood to make HCL
  50. Histamine
    blocks the H+ from lumen to prevent uncler
  51. Amlance
    carb breakdown-in mouth-neutral
  52. Pepsin
    Protein breakdown-acidic-stomach
  53. Pyloric sphincter
    • opening at bottom of stomach conecting duodenum
    • Opens and closes to stomach can have time to absorb all protein in stomach
  54. Entric nerve
    in middle of brain-triggers vomiting
  55. Small intestine names
  56. Hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter
    Where liver and pancrease join at duodenum
  57. Oddi-sphincter
    Another name for Hepatopancreatic sphincter
  58. Gallbladder
    opening into duodenum
  59. Bile duct
    Juices of liver
  60. Small intestine wall
    Alkaline 7.4 base
  61. Stomach mucosa layer
    folded into narrow fingers calles Villi
  62. Plical Circialus
    Tip of Villi-the folds of mucosa
  63. Intestinal crypt
    • "Licberkahn pits"
    • Secrete intestinal juice-haas lots of enzymes 7.42-7.8ph
  64. Paneth cells
    Produce lyosine-in intestinal crypt
  65. Microvilli
    • Top of villi
    • Brush border-absorbtion area increased
  66. Submucosa
    Bottom of gastic cell at the crypt
  67. Duodenal gland
    • In submucosa
    • secretes alkaline juices 7.4ph
  68. Brunners gland
    another name for duodenal gland
  69. Pyeris patch
    • Submucosa layer
    • immune cells-has lymph knodes
  70. Liver
    • Has 4 knobes
    • Righ and left are visible from front
    • Caudate & Quadrate lobes visible from back
    • 1.4 kilo-grams
    • makes bile juices
  71. Gallbladder
    • Stores bile
    • Secretes into duodenum
  72. Ligamentum
    • Thread like structure hanging out
    • remenent of fetal imbilical vein
  73. Liver job
    • Detoxifing anything put in body
    • Secretes bile juice
  74. Bile juices
    • Secreted by liver
    • No enzyme-digest lipids
  75. Hydrolotic
    • All enzyme work only in water based situations
    • Will not work on lipids
  76. Bile Salts
    Break down lipids
  77. Polar region of bile salt
    • Has charge
    • This side mixes with water
  78. Nonpolar region of bile salt
    • Negative charge
    • This side attaches to lipid enabling water to breack down lipid
  79. Liver properties
    • Rish in glycogen
    • Stores glucose
  80. Hepato cytes of liver
    Liver cells that grow back or regenerate
  81. Hexogonal plates
    • Shape and formation of liver cell
    • 6 sides and 6 corners
  82. Portal triad of liver
    • 3 tubes of the hexogonal plate
    • Bile duct-Artery-Vein
  83. Plates of Hepatocytes
    Liver cells make hepatic juice
  84. Sinusoid walls of liver
    • Tracks between hepatocytes
    • has Kupffer cells
  85. Kupffer Cells of liver
    Made of macrophines that eat bugs in body
  86. Hepatitis
    A-F 6 types
  87. Hepatitis "C"
    most common
  88. Hepatitis "B"
    Mostly in health care facilities
  89. Surosis of liver
    • Hepatitis B & C
    • Alcohol makes you more suspeptible to hetatitis
  90. Hepatitis "D"
    Cant come into you-must have Hep "B" first to get
  91. Hepatitis "A"
    Most common in children
  92. Emulsififcation
    Bile salt breakdown-lipid breakdown in liver
  93. Bilirubian
    • Formed when RBC are distroyed
    • Exited though urin and feces
  94. Urobiliogin
    Distroyed RBC flushed out in urine from liver
  95. Stercobilin
    Distroyed RBC flushed out in feces from liver
  96. Cholecystokinin
    • Secreted by duodunem wall
    • Tells galbladder to squeeze and release bile and open sphincter into duodenum
  97. Secretin
    • Secreted by duodunem wall
    • Hormone that will travel through blood to liver and tells it to secrete bile juices
  98. Gallstones
    Crystals of cholestoral in gallbladder
  99. Litotrypsy
    Shoot untral sound waves to break up gallstones
  100. Colesistcyamy
    • Removal of gallbladder
    • Bile duct enlarges and bile is stored here
  101. Jawndice
    Accumulation of urobliogin in blood vessels
  102. Pancreas
    • Secretes pancratic juice
    • Ph 8 alaline
  103. Acinar cell of pancrease
    Secretes pancreatic juice
  104. Pancrease secretes into
    • Small intestines
    • Trypsin-active enzyme
  105. Trypsin
    • Secreted by pancreas
    • active enzyme that breaks down protein in small intestine
  106. Trypsinogen
    Inactive enzyme that reacts with enteropeptidase to make trypsin enzyme
  107. Enteropepitose
    Mixes with trypsinogen to make trypsin
  108. Cholecystokinin in pancrease
    Tells pancrease to make pancreatic juice
  109. Secretin in pancrease
    Stimlates production of pancrease juice
  110. Cecum
    Connection where small and large intestine meet
  111. Colon
    • Large intestine
    • Ascending, Transvrese, Descending
  112. Haustrum
    Pockets of large intestine
  113. Water absorbtion
    • to little diahria
    • to much constipation
  114. Valsalvas
    • Process of goin to bathroom
    • pressure on lower abdomin, hold breath, puch ect
  115. Epiploic appendages
    • Fat balls
    • Dont know what they do
  116. Teniae coli
    Strong muscle
  117. Singmoid colon
    Attachemtn of colon to anus
  118. External anal sphincter
    Volentary at anus after rectum
  119. External anal sphincter
    • Volentary
    • controls movement
  120. Internal sphincter
    • Involentary
    • controls movement
  121. Rectal valve
    Separates solid and gas
  122. Hermorhoidal vein
    Drain all wastes away
  123. Hemroid
    Inflamation of hemorhaoidal veins
  124. Levator ani muscle
    Go up and down like a piston to propel waste material out of anal canal
  125. Ileustomy
    Removal of large intestine and attached to small intestines to anal canal
  126. Flura
    700 kinds of bugs live in large intestine
  127. DMSO
    Makes fats smelly
  128. Diverliculosis
    • Haustrum pockets very small
    • Narrowing of large intestine
  129. Diverticulitis
    inflamation or infection of large inestine
  130. Deflication reflex
    Goin to bathroom
  131. Cerbreal cortex
    • Controls external sphincter
    • lets you hold it in 150-200 ml each poop
  132. Parasythatic nerves system
    • Involentary
    • Lose control of bowles
Card Set
Intestines #2
Stomach, liver