Comm 231 Exam

  1. Oratory/Rhetoric
    Persuassive speeches
  2. Agora
    Athenians gathered in a public space called the agora to express their involvement in public affairs
  3. Forum
    Later in the Roman republic citizens met in a public space called a forum
  4. Public Forum
    today the term public forum denotes a variety of media for the voicing of ideas, including tradiotional phhysical spaces such as town squares as well as plethora of print and electronic media
  5. Forensic Oratory
    speech given in legislative or political contexts
  6. Epideictic
    also called ceremonial oratory rhetoric of ceremony, such as celebrations and funerals
  7. Canons of Rhetoric
    The process of prepearing a speech in five parts called Canons of Rhetoric: Invention, arrangement, syle, memory, and dellivery
  8. Invention
    refers to adapting speech information to the audience in order to make your case
  9. Arrangement
    is organizaing the speech in ways that are best suited to the topic and the audience
  10. Style
    is the way the speaker uses language to express the speech ideas
  11. Memory
    is the practice of the speech until it can be artfully delivered
  12. Delivery
    is the vocal and noverbal behavior you use when speaking
  13. Dyadic Communication
    is a form of communication between two people, as in conversation
  14. Small group communication
    involves a small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another
  15. Mass Communication
    occurs between a speaker and a large audience of uknown people
  16. Public Speaking
    a speaker delivers a message with a specific purpose to an audience of people who are present during the delivery of the speech
  17. Source/Sender
    is the person who creates message
  18. Encoding
    is the cumulative process of the source transforming thoughts into messages and delivering them to the audience
  19. Receiver
    the recipient of the source's message
  20. Decoding
    the process of interpreting the message
  21. Feedback*
    the audience's response to a message
  22. Audience Perspective
    trying to determine the needs ,attitudes, values of your audience before you begin speaking
  23. Message
    the content of the communication process: thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions
  24. Channel
    the medium through which the speaker sends a message
  25. Shared Meaning
    is the mutual understanding of a message between speaker and audience
  26. Rhetorical Situation
    circumstance that calls for a public response
  27. Culture
    the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from on generation to the next
  28. Ethnocentrism*
    the belief that the ways of our own culture are superior to those of other cultures
  29. Cultural Intellegience
    being skilled an flexible about understanding a culture, learning more about it from your ongoing interactions with it, and gradually reshaping your thinking to bem ore sympathetic to the culutre and to be more skillied and appropriate
  30. Visualization*
    guided imagery or mental rehearsal
  31. Critical Thinking*
    the ablility to evaluate claims on the basis of well-supported reasons
  32. Active Listening*
    focused purposeful listening
  33. Listening Distraction*
    anything that competes for attention that you atre trying to gice to something else
  34. Feedback Loop*
    the continual flow of feedback between speaker and listener. A situation in which sucessful speakers adjust their message based on their listeners' reactios, and vice versa
  35. Defensive Listening*
    a poor listening behavior in which the listener reacts defensively to a speakers' message
  36. Pandering*
    to identify with values that are not your own in order to win approval from an audience
  37. Values*
    our most enduring judgements or standards of what's important to us
  38. Beliefs*
    the ways in which people perceive reality or determine the very existance or validity of something
  39. Roasts*
    a humorous tribute to a person, one which a series of speakers jokingly poke fun at the individual being honored
  40. Toasts*
    a brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated
  41. Eulogy *
    a speech whose purpose is to celebrate and commemorate the life of someone while consoling those who are left behind; typically deliverd by close friends and family members
  42. Canned Speaches*
    a speech used repeatedly and without sufficient adaption to the rhetorical speech situation
  43. Ambushing*
  44. Famouse Greek teachers of speaking
    • Plato
    • Protagoras
    • Aristotle- divided the process of preparing a speech into 5 parts the Cannons of Rhetoric
  45. The elements of communication
    • Source/Sender
    • Message
    • Channel
    • Encoding
    • Decoding
    • Noise
  46. Noise
    anything that interferes with the communication process between a speaker and an audience, so that the message cannot be understood; noise can derive from external sources in the environment or from internal psychological factors
  47. Ways to analyze an audience
    • Interview
    • Surveys/ Quesionaires
    • Published Sources
  48. Interview
    a face to face communication or the purpose od gathering information
  49. Questionaires
    are designed to gather information from a pool of respondents
  50. Specific Purpose VS Thesis Statement
    • Specific Purpose is a declaritive sentence stating what you expect the speech to accomplish (what you want to achieve)
    • Thesis Statement what the speeach is about in one sentence
  51. General Purposes for Public Speaking
    • Inform
    • Pursuade
    • Special Occasion
  52. Parts of Speech
    • Intro
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  53. Elements of Effective Intros
    should catch the audience's attention and interest (startling statement, telling a story, or husing humor
  54. Elements of Effective Bodies
    contain the speech's main points and subpoints, all of which support the speech's thesis
  55. Elements of Successful Conclusions
    End on a strong note! Restate the thesis in a memorable way
  56. What causes speech anxiety?
    • lack of experience/ negative experience
    • feelign different from members of the audience
    • uneasiness of being the center of attention
  57. Different types of Speech Anxiety
    • Pre-preperation anxiety
    • Preperation Anxiety
    • Pre-performance anxiety
    • Performance Anxiety
  58. Pre Preperation Anxiety
    anxiety the minute they know they will be giving a speech
  59. Preperation anxiety
    anxiety arises when they actually begin to prepare for the speech
  60. Pre Performance Anxiety
    rehearsing the speech
  61. Performance Anxiety
    at the highest when the first few words are spoken
  62. Stress Control
    • Step one Inhale air and let abdomen go out. Exhale air and let your abdomen go in
    • Stage two As you inhale use a soothing words such as calm or relax, or a personal mantra, as follows: "Inhale Calm, abdomen out, exhale calm, abdomen in
  63. Systematic Desensitization
    a technique used in behavior therapy to treat phobias and other behavior problems involving anxiety; client is exposed to the threatening situation under relaxed conditions until the anxiety reaction is extinguished
  64. External Distractions
    virtually anythin in the environment- noise, movement, light, darkness, heat or cold- can be considered an external listening distraction
  65. Internal Distractions
    thoughts and feelings, both positive and negative, that intrude on our attention
  66. Demographics VS Target Audiences
    • Demograhpics are statistical characteristics of a given population
    • Target Audiences those individuals whom you are most likely to influence in your direction
  67. Examples of Demographic Categories
    age, socioeconomic status, rleigious and political affiliations, gender, disability, and ethnic and cultual background
  68. Open-ended question
    a question designed to allow respondents to elaborate as much as possible
  69. Close-ended question
    a question designed to elicit a small range of specific answers supplied by the interviewer
  70. Scale
    (attitude scale) a close ended question that measures the respondent's level of agreement or disagreement with specific issues
  71. Fixed alternative questions
    contain a limited choice of answers such as "yes", "no", "maybe"
  72. Functions of Special Occasion Speeches
    • Entertainment
    • Celebration
    • Commemeration
    • Inspiration
    • Social-Agenda Setting
  73. Types of Special Occasion speeches
    • introduction
    • acceptance
    • presentation
    • roasts/ toasts
    • eulogies
    • after dinner speeches
  74. Format of an Intro Speech
    • Background
    • Briefly preview the speaker's topic
    • ask audience to welcome speaker
  75. Format of Acceptance Speech
    • Prepare
    • React with genuinity and with humility
    • Thank those giving the award
    • thank others who helped you
  76. Listening and Hearing
    • Listening is the conscious act of recognizing , understanding and accurately
    • Hearing
Card Set
Comm 231 Exam
Comm 231 Terms Ch. 1,2,3,4,6,27