Psychology Midterm 3

  1. Traits
    relatively enduring predispositions that influence our behavior across many situations
  2. Nomothetic approach
    approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern the behavior of all individuals
  3. Idiographic approach:
    approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
  4. Shared environmental factors
    experiences that make individuals within the same family more alike
  5. Non-shared environmental factors
    experiences that make individuals within the same family less alike (e.g. parent treating one child more affectionately than the other child)
  6. Adoption studies
    permit investigators to separate the effects of genes and environment by examining children who were separated at an early age from their biological families
  7. Molecular genetic studies
    investigations that allow researchers to pinpoint which genes are associated with specific personality traits
  8. Psychoanalytic Theory
    The Foundation of Freud’s Thinking
  9. Somatogenic
    physiologically caused
  10. Catharsis
    feeling of relief following a dramatic out pouring of emotion
  11. Psychogenic
    psychologically caused
  12. Pseudocyesis
    false pregnancy
  13. Glove anesthesia
    loss of sensation in the hand alone, with no loss of sensation in the arm
  14. Psychic Determinism
    the assumption that all psychological events have a cause
  15. Symbolic meaning
    Psychoanalytic assumption that all actions are symbolic of something else
  16. Unconscious motivation
    According to Freud, the unconscious is more important in the causes of our personality than the conscious
  17. Id
    reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression
  18. Pleasure principle
    tendency of the id to strive for immediate gratification
  19. Ego
    psyche’s executive principal decision-maker
  20. Reality Principle
    tendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can findan appropriate outlet
  21. Superego
    our sense of morality
  22. Wish fulfillments
    According to Freud, the expressions of the id’s impulses represented in our dreams
  23. Defense mechanisms
    unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety
  24. Repression
    motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
  25. Denial
    motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences
  26. Regression
    the act of returning psychologically to a younger, and typically simpler and safer age
  27. Reaction formation
    transformation of an anxiety-provoking emotion into its opposite
  28. Projection
    unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others
  29. Displacement
    directing an impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target
  30. Rationalization
    providing a reasonable sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors
  31. Psychosexual stages
    Freud believed personality develops as it progresses through stages that focus on a specific erogenous zone
  32. Erogenous zone
    sexually arousing zone of the body
  33. Oral stage
    psychosexual stage that focuses on the mouth
  34. Anal stage
    psychosexual stage that focuses on toilet training
  35. Phallic stage
    psychosexual stage that focuses on the genitals
  36. Oedipus complex
    conflict during phallic stage in which boys supposedly love their mothers romantically and want to eliminate fathers as rivals
  37. Electra complex
    conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate mothers as rivals
  38. Penis envy
    supposed desire of girls to possess a penis
  39. Latency stage
    psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses are submerged into the unconscious
  40. Genital stage
    psychosexual stage in which sexual impulses awaken and typically begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others
  41. Psychoanalytic Theory Evaluated Critically
    • 1. Unfalsifiability
    • 2. Failed predictions
    • 3. Lack of evidence for defense mechanisms
    • 4. Questionable conception of the unconscious
    • 5. Reliance on unrepresentative samples
    • 6. Flawed assumption of shared environmental influence
  42. Trait Models: Key Challenges
    -Circular reasoning fallacy
    (the cause for something is also its result). e.g. concluding that a child is aggressive because he engages in aggressive behavior
  43. Trait Models: Key Challenges
    -Factor analysis
    statistical technique that analyzes the correlations among responses on personality inventories and other measures
  44. Big Five model of personality
    five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures
  45. Big Five
    extraverted people tend to be social and lively
  46. Big Five
    neurotic people tend to be tense and moody
  47. Big Five
    conscientious people tend to be careful and responsible
  48. Big Five
    agreeable people tend to be friendly and easy to get a long with
  49. Big Five
    Openness to Experience, or “Openness”
    open people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional
  50. Lexical Approach
    approach proposing that the most crucial features of personality are embedded in our language
  51. Anthropomorphizing
    unintentionally imposing implicit personality theories on animals
  52. Individualism-collectivism
    people from individualistic cultures (e.g. U.S.) tend to focus on themselves and their personal goals, while people from largely collectivist cultures (e.g. in Asia) tend to focus on their relations with others
  53. Basic tendencies
    underlying personality traits
  54. Characteristic adaptations
    the behavioral manifestations of personality traits
  55. Sensation seeking
    the tendency to seek out new and exciting stimuli
  56. Cosmetic Psychopharmacology
    the use of medications to produce long-term alterations to personality
  57. Structured personality tests
    paper-and-pencil tests consisting of questions that respondents answer in one of a few fixed ways
  58. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    widely used structured test designed to assess symptoms of mental disorders
  59. Empirical (or data based) method of test construction
    approach to building tests in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups, and examine which items best distinguish them
  60. Face validity
    the extent to which respondents can tell what the items are measuring
  61. Response sets
    tendencies to distort responses to items
  62. Impression management
    making ourselves look better than we really are
  63. Maligering
    making ourselves appear psychological disturbed when we really aren’t
Card Set
Psychology Midterm 3