franks midterm 2

  1. as x-ray photon energy increases, the penetrating ability of the photo __________
  2. as mAs increases, x-ray exposure increases and radiographic film density _____________
  3. exposure time is ____________ to the number of electrons crossing from cathode to anode
    directly proportional
  4. kilovoltage has a __________ impact on density
  5. x-ray intensity is_____________ proportional to the SID
  6. as distance decreases, intensity ________ and film density __________
    increases, increases
  7. the factors that effect x-ray emission under the direct control of the radiographer are called the ____________
    prime factors
  8. what are the prime factors?
    kVp, mAs, distance
  9. quantity, intensity and x-ray output are directly affected by _________
  10. x-ray quality is numerically represented by the __________
    half value layer
  11. ___________ and _________ are factors that directly affect x-ray quality
    kVp and filtration
  12. as the mA doubles, the number of electrons flowing from the cathode to the anode ________
  13. the primary control of x-ray quantity is governed by
  14. if the mAs of a radiograph is increased from 10 to 20, the resulting image will have _____________
    increased film density
  15. if the mAs used to create one image is the same as the mAs used to create a second image of the same structure, both images should have the same_______
  16. increasing the kVp on the x-ray control panel will cause an increase in the ____________ of the electrons across the x-ray tube
  17. increasing the energy of an incident electron will result in the production of an x-ray photon with __________ energy
  18. if kVp is double the amount of photons reaching the IR is approximately
    increased 4 fold
  19. kilovoltage is the primary controller of _____________
  20. an increase of kVp by 15% will cause an approximate ____________ in the exposure
  21. adjustments in kVp should be used to control radiographic ______________
  22. x-ray intensity is measured in _________________
  23. the relationship between the intensity of radiation and distance is the _____________
    inverse square law
  24. the density maintenance formula is a ______________ law
    direct square
  25. give 80 mAs and an exposure time of .20 seconds, calculate mA
  26. which interactions have a significant impact on the x-ray image?
    photoelectric absorption and compton scattering
  27. as the atomic number of an element increases, the energy required to remove an inner shell electron _______
  28. when a photon is _________ all of the energy is transferred to the matter
  29. when a photon is ____________, it no longer exists.
  30. during _______________ interaction, the energy released during the filling of the inner shell is known as secondary radiation
  31. during the photoelectric interaction, the incident x-ray photon must be greater than the _____________ energy of the inner shell electron
  32. in the human body, ___________ is the predominant interaction through most of the diagnostic x-ray range.
  33. during ____________ scattering, no energy is transferred in the interaction
  34. what interaction with matter results in an image with a short scale of contrast?
  35. when a scattered photon is deflected back toward the source, it is traveling in a direction opposite to the incident photon and is called ________________
  36. during ___________ the negatively charged electron is termed a negatron
    pair production
  37. what interaction with matter results in a radiograph with a long scale of contrast?
  38. as _________ increases, the total number of photons transmitted without interaction increases
  39. as kVp increases, the percentage of ________ interactions increase
  40. when an x-ray passes through matter it undergoes a process called ___________
  41. during attenuation, the x-ray photons in the beam ___________, ______________, and ____________
    reduce in number, interact with matter, and lose energy
  42. during ____________the x-ray photon is converted into matter in the form of 2 electrons
    pair production
  43. which atomic shell possesses the highest energy?
    K shell
  44. unwanted densities caused predominantly by scattered photons are called
    radiation fog
  45. as the electron shell moves farther from the nucleus, total electron energies _________ and binding energies ___________
    increase, decrease
  46. when x-ray photons interact with matter and change direction, the process is called _________
  47. if a photon interacts with matter and scatters, the photon exists with _____________ energy
  48. when an x-ray photon with slightly greater energy than the binding energy of the inner shell electron interacts with that inner shell electron, a __________ interaction occurs
    photoelectric absorption
  49. during photoelectric absorption, an ______________ is ejected
    inner shell electron
  50. during photoelectric absorption, the ejected electron is called ________
    a photoelectron
  51. during compton scattering, the incident photon energy is divided between the ____________ and _________
    ejected electron and scattered photon
  52. the photon that exits the atom after a compton scattering is called the compton _________________ photon
  53. during photoelectric interaction, as an electron transfers from an outer shell to a vacant inner shell, the energy is released in the form of ________________
    characteristic radiation
  54. the electron dislodged during compton scattering is called the __________
    recoil electron
  55. an interaction that occurs between very low energy x-ray photons and matter is called _____________
    coherent scatter
  56. _______________ is the source of occupational exposure
    compton scatter
  57. compton scattering occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with a ________________ electron
    loosely bound outer shell
  58. hydrogen
    H, 1
  59. Oxygen
    O, 8
  60. Barium
    Ba, 56
  61. Lead
    Pb, 82
  62. Iodine
    I, 53
  63. Tungsten
    W, 74
  64. Carbon
    C, 6
  65. Nitrogen
    N, 7
  66. Calcium
    Ca, 20
  67. an effective method of reducing patient exposure is through accurate and effective ____________
  68. as compared to an AP chest, a PA chest reduces ___________ to the breast tissue
  69. when the primary beam size ______________, the patient exposure decreases
  70. as compared to the AP skull, the PA skull reduces exposure to the ____________
    lens of the eyes
  71. list three types of gonad shields
    flat contact, shadow, shaped contact
  72. the radiation intensity from a diagnostic x-ray unit will vary in a ___________ relationship with the square of the kVp
  73. radiation intensity varies inversely with _____________
  74. entrance skin exposure is a ______________ exposure
  75. an increase in filtration caused a ____________ in entrance skin exposure
  76. the use of a grid will ___________ patient dose
  77. as film speed increases, patient exposure __________ when maintaining image receptor exposure
  78. the patient has the right to __________ a radiographic exam ordered by the attending physician
  79. the conscientious radiographer can reduce patient dose by at least ____________ in most examinations by choosing appropriate exposure factors
  80. the maximum exposure received by the patient is at the ________________
    skin entrance to the body
  81. the FDA sets an entrance skin exposure limit of __________ for fluoroscopic systems in the united states.
    11.5 R/minute
  82. the radiation intensity from a diagnostic x-ray unit will vary in a ____________ relationship with the mAs
  83. to reduce patient exposure, the ___________ kVp consistent with the image quality should be selected
  84. patient entrance skin exposure decreases as SID ____________
  85. most of the cones are located at the ___________ in high concentration
    fovea centralis
  86. ______________ involves comparing mental images of patterns-anatomical, physiological, pathological, and histological- to arrive at a diagnostic opinion
    pattern recognition
  87. Myopia is____________
    near sighted
  88. hyperopia is __________
    far sighted
  89. presbyopia is ___________
    difficulty to focus on close objects
  90. the fovea centralis creates a ___________ at a viewing distance of about 9 inches
    blind spot
  91. all radiographic images are missing the critical diagnostic element of ____________
  92. to view the human body in three dimensions, at least __________ images are required
  93. radiography is useful in the _____________ of art objects
  94. image _____________ is formulated in the brain
  95. the specialized cells in the retina convert the visual image into _________
    nervous impulses
  96. the _____________ transmits visual neurological information to the brain
    optic nerve
  97. when exposed to vast quantities of light photons, _____________ is over-sensitized and becomes bleached out
  98. rods and cones respond to ___________
  99. rods are _________ meaning that they see ________
    scotopic, at night
  100. cones are __________ meaning that they see __________
    photopic, color/day
  101. rods function best in _________ light
  102. the visual phenomenon involving the perception of extremely small or faint details is termed the _______________________
    threshold detection
  103. the _______________ occurs because the visual system has difficulty perceiving contrast differences that are distant from one another
    boundary effect
  104. the ___________ occurs when the eye perceives change in density
    mach effect
  105. the phenomenon that occurs when intensely bright light from a view box floods the eye directly is termed _____________
    veil glare
  106. contrast perception is dramatically increased when the eye uses a ___________ motion, this movement maintains a constantly changing neurological signal, thus avoiding ____________ of the optic nerves.
    scanning, saturation
  107. the radiographic image is a ______ dimensional object
  108. a radiographer can best minimize the amount of scatter radiation reaching the image receptor by ____________ the beam
  109. a__________ is placed between the patient and the IR to absorb scatter
  110. list 2 factors that affect the amount of scatter produced
    • kVp
    • type of material irradiated
  111. scatter photons from __________ interactions are of no use in demonstration radiographic structures of interest
  112. as more photons pass through the irradiated material unaffected, the resulting IR exposure has greater ____________
  113. If an increase in kV is accompanied by a reduction of mA, to maintain the same exit dose the overall result will be a _______ in the amount of scatter photons.
  114. as the kV increases, the amount of photons that undergo a __________ interaction will increase.
  115. penumbra is the geometric _____________ around the periphery of an image
  116. automatic collimators are known as _________ devices
    PBL positive beam limitation
  117. when more photons are absorbed photoelectrically, the resulting radiograph will have _________ density
  118. as the volume of irradiated tissue increases, the amount of scatter ________
  119. the ______ the z# of a material, the higher number of photoelectric absorption interactions will be and the __________ the scatter will be
    higher, lower
  120. when a beam restricting device is used, technical factors may need to be ________ to compensate for the change in the IR exposure
  121. list 3 beam restricting devices
    cone, cylinder, collimator
  122. why do higher z# materials have an impact on scatter?
    because high atomic number materials have a greater number of electrons within each atom and photons have a greater chance of striking an electron, creating an absorbing interaction
  123. radiographic film should be stored at a temperature _________ and _____________ humidity
    below 68 degrees F, and 30 to 60% humidity
  124. single emulsion film must be loaded with the __________ side toward the intensifying screen
  125. a small crystal size will create _______ resolution and a ________ speed
    high, slow
  126. double emulsion film is sometimes called _________
    duplitized film
  127. the _______ is a layer of hard , protective adhesive material.
  128. primarily, it is ___________ that interact with the film
    light photons
  129. the ejected halide electron is attracted to and trapped by a _____________
    sensitivity speck
  130. when the sensitivity speck traps a free electron, it becomes ____________ charged
  131. a negatively charged sensitivity speck attracts a free silver ___________ or ______
    cation, ion
  132. a single incident photon may free ___________ of electrons for deposition at sensitivity specks
  133. according to the gurney-mott theory, the incident photons interact with one of the halides and ejects an ____________
  134. what are the four layers of radiographic film (in order from top to bottom)
    supercoat, emulsion, adhesive, base
  135. qualities of a good film base include ____________
    flexibility, uniform lucency, stability
  136. adhesive is used to ___________
    glue the emulsion to the base without trapping any air or moisture
  137. emulsion is composed of ____________ and __________
    gelatin and silver halide crystals
  138. the gelatin is used to ____________
    distribute the crystals evenly over the surface of the film
  139. the photosensitive agents used in radiographic film include __________, _____________, and _____________
    sliver bromide, silver iodide, and silver chloride
  140. the most commonly used silver halide crystal is ____________
    silver bromide
  141. the unseen change in the atomic structure of the crystal lattice is called the __________
    latent image
  142. silver bromide precipitates out when _____________ reacts with ______________
    silver nitrate, potassium bromide
  143. the waste product found during crystal production is ____________
    potassium nitrate
  144. ______________ film is sensitive to all colors
  145. the crystal lattice is bound together with _________
    ionic bonds
  146. the impurity added to the crystal lattice is ____________
    gold silver sulfide
  147. the purpose of the sensitivity speck is to attract ___________
    free silver ions
  148. reducing agents provide _________ to the silver ions attached to the sensitivity specs
  149. fixing is the process of removing ____________
    unexposed silver halides
  150. Dryer system air dries the _______ and seals the __________
    emulsion, supercoat
  151. the usual storage time for radiographic film is _______ to _____ years
    5 to 7
  152. the average time to process a film in an automatic processor is about ___________
    90 seconds
  153. the pass box is used to pass ___________ to and from the dark room
  154. most darkrooms are equipped with a dark-red filter __________
    safe light
  155. dark room walls should be ________ in color, because reflected light is lower in intensity
  156. the recovery system is used to remove _______ from the fixer solution
  157. about __________ of the silver is removed from the emulsion after processing
  158. scrap film used to be a valuable source of __________ for a radiography department
  159. the primary purpose of radiographic processing it to ___________________________________.
    convert the latent image into the visible image.
  160. the most variable and sensitive factor in the production of the radiograph is the ________________.
    film processor
  161. the 4 steps of automatic processing are __________
    developing, fixing, washing, drying
  162. the image becomes visible during ___________
  163. the primary chemical agents in the developer are called ______________ agents
  164. the primary chemicals in the fixer are called ___________
    clearing agents
  165. if the fixer is not cleared from the film, it may result in a film that will become ____________ and then ________ with age
    yellow, brown
  166. a stable black metallic silver atom is formed when a positive silver ion obtains ____________
    an electron
  167. reducing agents ___________ positive silver ions
  168. when unexposed silver halides are reduced by a solution with high concentration, this is called ____________
    chemical fog
  169. if silver halide crystals have more than three silver atoms on their sensitivity specs, the crystal will be able to be
  170. the reducing agents used in automatic radiographic processors are _____________ and ___________ and are sometimes called ___________
    Phenidone and Hydroquinone, PQ developer
  171. ____________ quickly reduces silver, enhancing fine detail
  172. _____________ is the reducing agent that works only in areas of light.
  173. __________ is the reducing agent that slowly reduces silver producing the heavy density
  174. when _________ and ________ are combined, their reducing ability is greater than the sum of their independent abilities. this phenomenon is know as ______________
    phenidone, hydroquinone, super additivity
  175. as the developer is in its final stages of oxidation, its color will change to ___________
    rusty red
  176. the restrainer added to the developer is _______________
    potassium bromide
  177. the preservative agent added to both the developer and the fixer is ___________
    sodium sulfite
  178. the most common developer solution hardener is ____________
  179. the solvent used in both developing and fixing is ____________
  180. the _________ is most affected by contamination
  181. a film processed in contaminated developer will exhibit _____________
    low contrast
  182. the most common developer contamination is _____________
  183. the processor lid is propped open when the unit is not in use to prevent _________
  184. a clearing agent will bond with _______________
    unexposed silver halides
  185. the most commonly used clearing agent found in fixer solution is _______________
    ammonium thiosulfate
  186. fixer solution becomes saturated with __________
    silver ions
  187. developer has an _______________ pH, while the fixer has an ______________pH
    alkaline, acidic
Card Set
franks midterm 2
round 2 of quiz questions for franks class