DNA and Protein Synthesis

  1. Whats the difference between a purine and pyrimidine?
    • purine- G and A, 2 rings
    • pyrimidine- C and T, 1 ring
  2. Who is responsible for determining the structure of the DNA molecule and in what year?
    Watson and Crick, 1953
  3. How did Rosalind Franklin contribute to determining the structure of DNA?
    she formed the X-ray diffraction model
  4. What kind of bonds hold the complementary DNA bases together?
    weak hydrogen bonds
  5. What is the most common nucleic acid found in organisms?
  6. Define DNA replication
    the process that copies 1 DNA strand into 2 equal strands
  7. What is a replication fork?
    the initiation point where helicase begins splitting the DNA
  8. How many amino acids are there?
  9. How many codon combinations are there?
  10. Name the three types of RNA and tell the shape of each.
    • mRNA- linear
    • rRNA- heart
    • tRNA- cloverleaf
  11. Which type of RNA copies DNA's instructions in the nucleus?
  12. What makes up ribosomes?
    • rRNA
    • large and small ribosomal units
  13. What are the three STOP codons?
    • UAG
    • UAA
    • UGA
  14. What does tRNA transport?
    amino acids
  15. What are transcripts?
    mRNA molecules
  16. What kind of bonds do amino acids use when bonding with one another?
    peptide bonds
  17. What codon/amino acid begins protein synthesis?
    AUG- methionine
  18. In what two places in the cell can ribosomes be found?
    cytoplasm and rough ER
  19. What happens to the newly formed mRNA after transcription?
    it exits the nucleus and binds to the ribosome where translation occurs
  20. Which RNA molecules are involved in protein synthesis?
    All (rRNA, tRNA, mRNA)
  21. Where is the anticodon found on tRNA?
    the second loop
  22. Does DNA replication begin at one end and proceed to the other?
    No, starts from many different points
  23. Where does RNA polymerase bind to the DNA it is transcribing?
    the promoter region
  24. What is RNA polymerase?
    • transcription enzyme
    • attaches to DNA, unwinds DNA, builds up an RNA molecule
  25. What is a mutation?
    any change in an organism's genetic code
  26. Name several things that can cause DNA mutations.
    mutagenic chemicals, radiation
  27. What is a codon and what does each codon code for?
    3 nucleotides, amino acids
  28. What organelle synthesizes proteins?
  29. What are three binding sites on the ribosomes?
    • E site- exit
    • P site
    • A site
  30. The start codon AUG pairs with what anticodon?
  31. Can more than one ribosome at a time translate an mRNA transcript?
  32. What determines the primary structure of a protein
    amino acid sequence
  33. What is DNA's primary function?
    to store and transmit genetic info
  34. What are the repeating subunits called that make up DNA?
  35. Name the three parts of a DNA nucleotide
    • sugar (deoxyribose)
    • phosphate
    • bases (A, T, C, G)
  36. How are the two strands of DNA positioned in relation to one another?
    antiparallel with complementary bases
  37. What makes up the sides of a DNA molecule?
    phosphate and sugar
  38. What makes up the "steps" of a DNA molecule?
    nitrogen bases
  39. What makes up the "backbone" of the DNA molecule?
    phosphodiester bonds, sugar and phosphate
  40. How many base pairs are in a full turn or twist of a DNA molecule?
  41. How many hydrogen bonds link C and G?
  42. How many hydrogen bonds link A and T?
  43. What is the first step that must occur in DNA replication?
    unzipping, or separating of the strands using helicase
  44. What is the function of DNA polymerase III?
    adds new complementary nucleotides to each strand
  45. What acts as a template in DNA replication?
    the sequence of base pairs on each separated strand
  46. What is the function of DNA polymerase I?
    changes the RNA nucleotides from primase between the Okazaki fragments into DNA nucleotides
  47. What is the function of ligase?
    connects Okazaki fragments
Card Set
DNA and Protein Synthesis