Blood and Lymphatic

  1. Normal Composition
    • 55% fluid: water and dissolved solutes
    • 45% cells and formed elemetns: RBC, WBC, thrombocytes (platelets)
  2. Hematocrit
    • thickness of bloos # of cells per volume of blood
    • Too high indicates dehydration or increased cell production
    • High Hematocrit = increased stress on heart and increased blood clotting
  3. Hemoglobin
    the portion of the mature RBC that is to carry O2
  4. Plasma
    clear yellow fuild after cells are removed
  5. Serum
    Fluid and solutes remaining after cells and fibrinogen have been removed
  6. Components Required for Blood Clotting
    • Ca ions
    • Vitamin K
    • Clotting Factors produced by the liver
  7. Three steps in Blood Clotting
    • Immediate Vasoconstriction
    • Thrombocytes adhere to underlying tissue - if small vessels forms platelet plug
    • If large Vessels coagulation mechanism needed (pg 248 in book)
  8. Blood Types
    • O: universal bonor (lacks A & B antigens)
    • A:
    • B:
    • AB: univeral recipent
  9. Diagnostic Tests
    • CBC: complete blood count
    • Differential count: % of each type of WBC
    • Hematocrit: RBC's per volume in %
    • Hemoglobin: amount of hgb per cell
    • Reticulocyte count, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: used to confirm abnormal production of blood cells (leukemia)
    • Chemical analysis of blood: (O2, CO2, enzymes)
  10. How Clotting disorders are diagnosised
    • Bleeding Time
    • Prothrombin time (PT): extrinsic pathway
    • Partial Thromboplastin time (PTT): intinsic pathway
    • INR: extrinsic pathway
  11. Blood Therapies
    • Blood transfusions: whole blood, packed RBC's or packed platelets (administered with severe anemia of thrombocytopenia)
    • Plasma or collaidal volume expanding solutions: high hematocrit
    • Artificial blood products
    • Products to stimulate formation of RBC's
    • Bone Marrow or stem cell transplants
  12. Lymphatic System
    • Functions to return excess interstitial fluid & protein to the blood
    • defense system by filtering out the bad and returing the good
    • consists of vessels, nodes, lymphoid tissue (tonsils, spleen, thymus)
    • essential for the proper function of immune system
    • If the lymphatic system isn't working the blood values may be off
  13. Types of Anemia
    • Iron Deficiency
    • Pernicious
    • Aplastic
    • Sickle Cell
    • Thalassemia
  14. Iron Deficiency
    low iron in diet; especially in puberty, pregnancy, or with excess blood flow
  15. Pernicious
    Deficiency in vitamin B12; during pregnancy can lead to spina bifida
  16. Aplastic
    • decreased WBC decreased RBC platelets due to damaged bone marrow, virus or idiopathic
    • RBC's are abnormal and large
  17. Sickle Cell
    • Abnormal Hgn when deoxygenated takes a sickle shopa
    • Genetic recessive
    • Increased risk of CVA, Mi by occluding arteries
    • Painfull Crises
  18. Thalassemia
    genetic defect that results in decreased amount of Hgb & RBC's produced
  19. Signs and Symptoms of Anemia
    Fatigue, pallor, dyspnea, tachycardia (can progress to arhythmis/death) cold intolerance
  20. Diagnosis of Anemia
    • Blood Tests
    • Hct
    • Hbg
    • Blood smears
  21. Treatment for Anemia
    • depends of cause
    • Diet (iron & pernicious)
    • Blood Transfusions
    • Bone Marrow transplant
  22. Polycythemia
    increased production of RBC's, other cells in bone marrow, blood volume & viscosity increase, increased chance for MI
  23. Signs and Symptoms of Polycythemia
    • cyanotic, bluish red skin, enlarged blood vessels, enlarged liver, spleen, heart, increased BP,
    • Spleen & Liver Congestion
  24. Diagnosis & Treatment for Polycythemia
    • Diagnosis: Cell counts
    • Hgb, Hct
    • Treatment: drugs, radiation to suppress bone marrow, plebotomy (removal of blood periodically)
  25. Hemophelia A
    • Etiology: deficit of normal clotting factors
    • S&S: prolonged or severe hemorrhage, spontaneous hemarthosis
    • Diagnosis: increased PTT, APPT & coagulation time
    • These people need to aviod risky behaviors
  26. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
    a compication of numerous primary problems. for example OB compications, carcinomas, major trauma, chronic DIC often due to chronic infection
  27. Signs and Symptoms of DIC
    excessive bleeding and excessive clotting, more often hemorrhage is critical problem. Low BP, Respiratory impairments, seizures and decreased responviveness
  28. Treatment for DIC
    • Treat the underlying cause
    • treamtent of coagulation imblance is very difficult. Pt is monitored very carefully
  29. Leukemia
    • Pathology: WBC's that are undifferentiated immature, non functional multiply uncontrollably
    • S&S: unresponsive infection, excess bleeding, signs of aneamia, bone pain Wt. loss and fatigue
    • Diagnosis: blood counts, smears
    • Treatment: chemo, maintain nutritions, transfusions, bone marrow transplant
    • Therapy: indurance and bone pain
  30. Hodgkins Lyphoma
    • starts as single lymph node, spreads
    • S&S; enlarged lymph nodes, spleen = pressure effects generals signs of cancer. recurrent infection due to affect on immune system
    • Rx: surgery, chemo, radiation
    • if caught early good prognosis
  31. Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
    • Starts as enlarged painless lymph node
    • Multiple node involvement scattered throughout body non-organized pattern of widespread metastases
    • Clinical signs staging and treatment similar to hodgkins lymphoma
Card Set
Blood and Lymphatic