pathology unit1

  1. What are 4 defects of Tetralogy of Fallot?
    • 1. Pulmonary Stenosis
    • 2. VSD
    • 3. R. ventricular hypertrophy
    • 4. Transposition (Dextraposition of aorta)
  2. T or F
    does Tetralogy cause "baby blue" syndrome due to poorly oxygenated blood
  3. From wich ventricle is blood shunted from and which ventricle does it flow into in a heart with Tetralogy?
    from right ventricle to the left ventricle
  4. What does the insufficient amount of oxygenated blood in system result in?
  5. Having a misplace aorta permits deoxygenated blood to flow into what?
    Into the aorta from right ventricle
  6. What does an increased strain on the right ventricle pumping blood through the stenosed pulmonary artery cause?
    the right ventricle to enlarge
  7. What causes Tetralogy?
    • 1. emnbryonic hypoolasia
    • 2. fetal alcohol syndrome
    • 3. no absolute reason
  8. What are the clinical findings to Tetralogy?
    • 1. cyanosis
    • 2. tachycardia
    • 3. exercise intolorence
    • 4. older child assumes squatting position after running
  9. What are some test that can be done on a person with Tetralogy?
    • 1. chest x-ray (cardiac looks like a boot shape)
    • 2. echo (soundwaves of heart)
    • 3. ekg (rate &regularity of heart beat)
    • 4. blood work (count & oxygen levels)
    • 5.heart cath (diagnose extent of problem)
  10. What are some complications of Tetralogy?
    • 1. pulmonary thrombosis
    • 2. venous thrombosis
    • 3. cerebral embolism
  11. What are some treatments for Tetralogy?
    • 1. open heart surgery
    • 2. Dacron patch closes the VSD
    • open stenosed pulmonary artery
  12. Is Atrial Septal defect more common in males or females?
  13. According to what will cause an ASD to reman undetected untill a patient is an adolescent?
    Defect size
  14. What are some probable causes of ASD
    • 1. may occur due to failure of foramen ovale to close at birth
    • 2. unknow
  15. what are some clinical findings for ASD?
    • 1. fatigue, SOB after extreme exertion in a child
    • 2. BP is higher on left due to pumping action of left side
    • 3. shunts blood back to the right through the hole
  16. what causes mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?
  17. what side of the heart is overworked in an ASD patient?
    the right side
  18. what are tests that can be done a patient with ASD?
    • 1. chest x-ray
    • 2. cardiac cath
    • 3. ekg
    • 4. echo
  19. what are some treatments for a patient with ASD?
    • 1. surgery using Dacron patch
    • 2. interventional procedure using various devices
  20. what congential heart defect can have one hole, several holes, or an entire septum missing?
    • VSD
    • (ventricular septal defect)
  21. in VSD higher pressure is in which ventricle?
  22. which ventricle and atrium are enlarged due to VSD?
    left according to defect size
  23. blood returns to what instead of going to arch in a VSD patient?
    to the lungs
  24. what are the clinical findings for VSD?
    • 1. heart murmur
    • 2. tachypnea (more than 60 breaths per min)
  25. what are some test that can be done for a VSD patient?
    • 1. chest x-ray
    • 2. cardiac cath
  26. what are treatments for VSD?
    • depending on size of defect
    • 1. surgery repair with patch or graft
    • 2. inerventional procedure using button closure device or other devices
  27. what is Coarctation of the Aorta?
    narrowing (stricture) of aorta just inferior to left subclavian artery
  28. in coarctation of the aorta which part of the body recieves adequate blood supply and which recieves inadequate blood supply?
    • upper - adequate
    • lower - inadequate

    collaterals will compensate for poor blood supply
  29. T or F
    BP is higher in legs than in arms for a coarctation of the aorta patient
  30. what are the clinical findings for coarctation of the aorta?
    • 1. coolness in lower extremities
    • 2. muscle cramps after exercise
    • 3. headaches
    • 4. epistaxis (bloody nose)
    • 5. dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
  31. what exam is given for the coarctation of the aorta
    aortogtaphy of arch and descending aorta
  32. what are the treatments for coarctation of the aorta?
    • 1. surgically excise the narrowed segment
    • 2. sew the inaffected ends together
    • 3. angioplasty
  33. what is a ductus artetriosus
    blood vessel that connects pulmonary artery to descending aorta
  34. what does a patent ductus arteriosus do?
    it allows blood in pulmonary artery to bypass nonfunctioning lungs and enter the aorta
  35. how long does it take for a patent ductus arteriosus to close
    days to weeks after birth
  36. if a PDA fails to close after birth, what happens to blood flow
    blood shunts left to right from aorta to pulmonary artery recirculating oxygenated arterial blood through the lungs
  37. what gender is affected most with PDA
  38. what is the most common heart defect found in adults
  39. what causes PDA
    • 1. premature infants
    • 2. people born in high altitudes
    • 3. pregnant mother with rubella
  40. what is a complication of PDA
    respiratory distress
  41. what test are done for PDA
    • 1. chest x-ray (increased pulmonary markings)
    • 2. cardiac cath
  42. what are treatments for PDA
    • 1. surgical correction in infants
    • 2. embolization using stainless steel coils
  43. What happens in a Mitral Valve Stenosis?
    • 1. valve thickens due to calcification
    • 2. chordae tendineae fuse and shorten
    • 3. valve cusps become rigid
    • 4. apex of valve narrow obstructing blood flow
    • 5.l atrial blood vol. increases
    • 6. l. atrial pressure rises
    • 7. l. atrium enlarges
  44. what does MVS result in
    • 1. pulmonary hypertension
    • 2. regurgitation
    • 3. lt. atrial hypertrophy
    • 4. reduces cardiac output
    • 5. inadequate left ventricle filling
    • 6. thrombus and embolism may occur
  45. what are clinical findings for MVS
    • 1. orhopnea (cant breath when laying)
    • 2. weakness
    • 3. fatigue
  46. what are some treatments for MVS
    • 1. open heart surgery
    • 2. balloon valvuloplasty
    • 3. valve replacement
    • 4. medication
Card Set
pathology unit1
heart pathology