1. Arteries
    Carry blood away from heart
  2. Veins
    Carry blood to the heart
  3. Capillaries
    • Incredibly small blood vessels connecting small arteries and small veins
    • Site of most gas exchange between blood and tissue
  4. Pulmonary Circuit
    Carried blood between heart and lungs
  5. Systemic Circuit
    Carries blood between heart and rest of body
  6. Pericardium
    • Surrounds the heart and stabilizes it
    • Epicardium (or visceral pericardium): lining sits right next to heart
    • Parietal pericardium is outer lining
  7. Pericardial Fluid
    • Pericardial cavity filled with fluid secreted by membranes
    • Fluid is lubricant for membranes as the heart beats
  8. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of pericardium; membranes rub together and excess fluid collects in pericardial sac
  9. Atria
    • Receive blood
    • Right atrium: receives blood from systemic circuit
    • Left atrium: receives blood from pulmonary circuit
    • Each has small extension (autricle)
  10. Ventricles
    • Pump blood
    • Right ventricle: pumps blood into pulmonary circuit
    • Left ventricle: pumps blood into systemic circuit
  11. Sulcus
    • Groove between different regions of the heart
    • Coronary sulcus: separates atria and ventricles
    • Anterior and posterior interventricular sulci: separate left and right ventricles
  12. Epicarium (Layer of Heart Wall)
    Part of the pericardium, made of epithelial cells and sometimes fat; blood vessels throughout
  13. Myocardium (Layer of Heart Wall)
    Cardiac muscle, nerve, blood vessels
  14. Endocardium (layer of heart wall)
    Covers inner surface of heart wall
  15. Spiral Myocardial Muscles
    muscle fibers in heart create a swirl. When contracted, heart is like ringing out a shirt
  16. Interatrial Septum
    Separates the right and left atria
  17. Interventricular Septum
    Separates the right and left ventricles
  18. Atrioventricular Valves
    Are found at junction between atria and ventricles and allow unidirectional fluid flow
  19. Semilunar Valves
    Prevent backflow into ventricles
  20. Pulmonary Valve
    Prevents backflow into right ventricle
  21. Aortic Valve
    Prevents backflow into left ventricle
  22. Chordae Tendinae
    • Attach to valves to anchor them and keep them from opening in both directions
    • Attached to papillary muscles, which control opening and closing of valves
  23. When do AV valves open?
    When ventricles are relaxed to let blood into ventricles
  24. When do Semilunar Valves open?
    Ventricles are contracting to let blood out of ventricles
  25. Right Atrium
    • Receives blood from systemic circuit through two veins
    • Superior Vena Cava: delivers blood from head, neck, upper limbs, and chest
    • Inferior Vena Cava: delivers blood from lower trunk, viscera, and lower limbs
  26. Right Ventricle
    • Receives blood from right atrium through right AV (tricuspid) valve
    • Has trabeculae carneae (musuclar ridges) along its internal surface
    • Sends blood out to lungs through pulmonary valve,
    • then pulmonary trunk, then left and right pulmonary arteries
  27. Left Atrium
    Receives blood from two left and two right pulmonary veins
  28. Left Ventricle
    • Receives blood from left atrium through left AV (mitral or bicuspid) valve
    • Very thick, muscular walls (bigger than right ventricle)
    • Also has trabeculae carnae
    • Blood exits left ventricle and enters systemic circuit and ascending aorta
Card Set