Toxicology Exam II

  1. Chemicals may cause harm via
    • inhalation
    • ingestion
    • absorbsorption through the skin
  2. Industrial workers are exposed to chemical solvents and vapors during
    • synthesis
    • manufacturing
    • packaging
    • use in an occupational setting
  3. Guidelines are set to establish
    safe ambient air concentrations for many chemicals found in the workplace
  4. Workplace exposure guidelines established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
    Threshold limit values
  5. ACGIH has no
    regulatory authority
  6. Toxicologic basis for each TLV are based on
    • respiratory sensitization
    • sensory irritation
    • odor
    • narcosis
    • asphyxia
  7. TLV is not
    • a relative index of toxicity
    • a fine line separating safe from dangerous
  8. Common units for TLV
    • parts per million (ppm)
    • parts per billion (ppb)
    • chemical per cubic meter of air (mg/m3)
  9. Conversion of ppm to mg/m3
    mg/m3= (ppm x mw)/22.4
  10. Threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA)
    concentration for a normal 8hr work day or 40hr work week for which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect.
  11. Threshold limit value-short term exposure limit (TLV-STEL)
    • max concentration (larger than TLV-TWA)
    • should not be exceeded during a 15 min exposure
  12. Threshold limit value-ceiling (TLV-C)
    concentration that should not be exceded when exposure is instantaneous
  13. compounds designated "S"
    • skin contact is the significant route of exposure
    • potential corrosive effects
    • systemic toxicity due to absorption
  14. ACGIH classifies carcinogens as
    • A1 = confirmed in humans
    • A2 = suspected in humans
    • A3 = animal carcinogens
  15. TLVs are heavily based on
    • workplace exposures
    • conditions occuring w/in the US
  16. OSHA regulation
    • standards for exposure to airborne contaminants
    • agency of the federal government
  17. OSHA's version of TLV-TWA
    permissible exposure limit
  18. Substances that are specifically regulated as carcinogens by OSHA are indicated by
    • OSHA-CA
    • additional regulation applies
  19. Some states operate their own occupational health programs in cooperation with OSHA. In these states ______ standards may apply.
    more strict
  20. OSHA defines Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) as
    a max concentration from which one could escape within 30 minutes without any symptoms or irreversible health affects
  21. Warning properties that are valuable indicators of exposure
    • odor
    • sensory irritation
  22. Sense of smell may be unreliable for detecting compounds because of
    • olfactoy fatigue
    • individual differences in odor thresholds
    • no correlation between odor quality and toxicity
    • pleasant smelling compounds are not less toxic
  23. Most common routes of exposure
    • skin contact
    • inhalation
  24. Chemicals which may come in contact with skin or be inhaled
    • gasses/vapors/aerosols
    • volatile liquids
    • other liquids
    • dusts and fibers
  25. Organs most commonly affected by industrial chemicals
    • respiratory system
    • skin
  26. most prevalent occupational disesase that accouts for more work days lost than all prescribed industrial diseases together
  27. Chemical agents may cause
    • irritation
    • sensitization
    • inflammation
  28. Primary irritants
    • acids
    • alkalis
    • metals
    • solvents
    • organic/inorganic chemicals
  29. Solvents will
    degrease skin
  30. Acids and alkalis will
    denature skin proteins
  31. Skin sensitizers act via _____ mechanisms to cause ____.
    • immunological
    • contact dermatitis
  32. Re-exposure to a previous sensitizer will cause
    allergic reaction
  33. Example of skin sensitizers
    nickel and its salts
  34. Sensitization following inhalation exposure may lead to
  35. Toluene-diisocyanate
    pulmonary sensitizer used in many compounds
  36. Causes occupational acne
    chlorinated hydrocarbons
  37. Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons are used for
    degreasing & clensing agents
  38. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon compounds
    • CCL4
    • CHCL3
    • trichloroethylene
    • tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
    • 1,2-dichloroethrane
    • 1,1,1 - trichlorethane (methylchloroform)
  39. Clinical side effects of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons
    • CNS depression
    • liver injury
    • kidney injury
    • cardio-toxicity (sensitization to norepinephrine)
  40. Most potent CNS depressant halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon
  41. Chronic exposure to tetrachloroethylene can
    • impair memory
    • induce peripheral neuropathy
  42. 1,1,1-trichlorethene (HAH) is associated with
    peripheral neuropathy
  43. Most potent HAH in regards to hepatotoxicity
  44. HAH's that may cause nephrotoxicity
    • CCL4
    • CHCL3
    • trichlorothylene
    • tetrachloroethylene
  45. HAH's have shown _____ in life time exposure studies in rats or mice
  46. Treatments for exposure to HAHs
    • no specific treatment
    • depends on organ system involved
  47. Used for CCL4 toxicity
  48. Products used widely in plastic, agriculture and chemical industries as solvents degreasers and fuel
    petroleum and solvent distillates
  49. Excessive inhalation or ingestion of petroleum products causes
    • n/v
    • pulmonary irritation
    • CNS and respiratory depression
    • cardiac sensitization to catacholamines
  50. Chemical pneumonia
    direct injury from pulmonary aspiration of petroleum distillates
  51. Treatment for petroleum and solvent distillates
    • administration of charcoal (if ingested not if inhaled)
    • gastric lavage
    • artificial respiration
Card Set
Toxicology Exam II
Industrial Solvents I