Fund of Nursing

  1. Microorganism is present or invades a host, grows and/or multiplies but does not cause infection:
  2. Diseae that can be transmitted directly from one person to another is termed a:
    communicable disease
  3. If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms, the infection is:
  4. If clinical signs and symptoms are not present, the illness is termed:
  5. asymptomatic
  6. to prevent growth and reproduction of bacteria
  7. A temp or chemical that destroys bacteria is called:
  8. This is one of the most bacterially contaminated sites of the human body:
  9. The major route of transmission for pathogens identified in the health care setting is the:
    unwashed hands of the health care worker
  10. Some of the factors that influence a person's susceptibility (resistance) to a pathogen include:
    Age, nutritional status, presence of chronic disease, trauma, smoking
  11. If an infection is __________ the client usually experiences localized symptoms such as pain and tenderness and redness at the wound site.
  12. An infection that affects the entire body instead of just a single organ is:
    SYSTEMATIC and can become fatal if undetected & untreated
  13. Stage of infection in which pathogen enter body (carrier)
  14. Most contagious stage of infection in which person might experience a symptom or two, just don't feel good
    Prodromal Stage
  15. Full blown stage of infection when all symptoms are present
    Illness stage
  16. Stage of infection in which symptoms start to go away (not as contagious)
    Convalescence Stage
  17. Infection occurs in a cycle that depends on the presence of all of the following elements: (chain of infection)
    • *An infectious agent or pathogen
    • *A reservoir
    • *Portal of exit
    • *Mode of transmission
    • *Portal of entry
    • *susceptible host
  18. ___________is a protective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to an area of injury.
  19. Signs of localized inflammation may include:
    • -swelling
    • -redness
    • -heat
    • -pain/tenderness
    • -loss of function in affected body part
  20. When inflamation becomes systemic, other signs & symptoms develop including:
    • -fever -lymph node enlarg
    • -leukocytosis -organ failure
    • -malaise
    • -anorexia
    • -nausea
    • -vomiting
  21. The vascular inflammatory response Vasolilatation results in:
    an increase in local blood flow causing redness and warmth at the injured site due to the greater volume of blood.

    Also delivers WBC's to injured tissue
  22. Vascular inflammatory Response:
    tissue damage results in release of chem.mediators that > the perm. of smal blood vessels. Resulting in fluid entering interstitial spaces; accumulating and causing ________
    Edema (localized swelling)
  23. Cellular Response of inflammation:
    WBC's pass through blood vessels & into tissues. Through the process of ______, specialized WBC's _______&_______, ingest & destroy microorganisms
    • phagocytosis
    • neutrophils
    • monocytes
  24. If inflammation becomes systemic other signs develop such as _______, which is an increase in the number of circulating WBC's
  25. A serum WBC is normally ____to_____
    But may rise to _____to______ and higher during inflammation
    normal range: 5,000-10,000/mm3

    can rise: 15,000/20,000/mm3
  26. ______is caused by phagocytic release of pyrogens from bacterial cells that cause a rise in the hypothalamic set point.
  27. Accumulation of fluid/dead tissue cells and WBC's forms an _______ at the site of inflammation.
    (clear, like plasma)________
    (containing red blood cells)___________
    (containing WBC's/bacteria)__________
    Inflammatory EXUDATE

    • clear: serous
    • cont. red blood cells: sanguineous
    • cont. WBC's/bacteria: purulent
  28. Tissue repair due to inflammation:
    Damaged cells are replaced w/healthy cells and gradually mature until they resemble the previous cells. If inflammation is chronic, tissue defects may fill w/__________(scar tissue)
    granulation tissue (not as strong as tissue collagen)
  29. A health care-aquired infection is called:

    (HAI's) Health care-associated infection
  30. This is a type of nosocomial or HAI infection resulting from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure
    Iatrogenic infection
  31. An _______ organism is one that is present outside the client and causes infection:
    ex: a postop infection is an _________
    • EXOGENOUS organism
    • EXOGENOUS infection
  32. An _________ can occur when part of the pt. flora becomes altered & an overgrowth results.
    ex: a pt. is placed on several antibiotics in the hospital & develops C. difficile infection as a result
    ENDOGENOUS infection
  33. Major sites for noscomial or HAI's are:
    • 1. urinary tract
    • 2. surgical or traumatic wounds
    • 3. respiratory tract
    • 4. bloodstream
  34. An age-related decline in immune system function, termed ____, increases the body's susceptibility to infection & slows overall immune response
    immune senescence
  35. Older adults are less capable or producing _______ to combat challenges to the immune system. When antibodies ARE produced, the duration of their response is _____and fewer cells are produced
    • lymphocytes
    • shorter
  36. Risks associated w/the development of noscomial infections in older clients include:
    • 1. poor nutrition
    • 2. unintentional weight loss
    • 3. low serum albumin levels
  37. By knowing/assessing the factors that increase susceptibility/risk for infection & recognizing early signs/symptoms, the nurse is able to plan appropriate interventions:
    ex: a smoker is at > risk for acquiring a respiratory tract infection after general surgery b/cause respiratory cilia are less likely to propel retained mucus from the client's airways
  38. Any reduction in the body's primary or secondary defenses against infection places pt at > risk. **some defense mechanisms are:
    • skin
    • mouth
    • eye
    • respiratory tract
    • urinary tract
    • gastrointestinal tract
    • vagina (see pg 647 for actions)
  39. Many factors influence susceptibility to infection such as:
    • 1. age
    • 2. nutritional status
    • 3. Stress
    • 4. Disease process(diseases of immune)
    • 5. Medical therapy
  40. _______ are the most common cause of communicable illness in young/middle-age adults.
  41. Stress:
    When stressed, the bmr > as body uses energy stores. If stress continues, elevated cortisone levels result in <resistance to infection
    Ex: meningitis is a seasonal disease commonly occurring in colleges around exam time. students are under stress, not eating properly & not getting enough strength. Resistance is lowered & they are more prone to illness
  42. Normal adult values:
    WBC count __________
    Erythrocytes sedimentation rate _______
    Iron level _________
    Cultures or urine & blood ________
    Cultures & Gram Stain _________
    • WBC 5000-10,000/mm3
    • Erythrocytes 15mm/hr(men)20mm/hr fem
    • Iron level 60-90 g/100ml
    • urine/blood cultures: sterile/no growth
    • gram stain cultures:no WBC's on stain
  43. Percentage of each type of WBC
    • n. 55-70% >pus forming infection
    • l. 20-40% >chronic bacterial/viral infect
    • m 5-10% >protozoan,rickettsial,TB infe
    • e 1-4% >parasitic infection
    • b 0.5-1.5% Normal during infection
  44. _______is the absence of pathogenic microorganisms
  45. Clean technique-inclues procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microbes
    ex: hand hygiene, clean gloves, cleaning environment
    Medical asepsis
  46. _____ describes a process that eliminates many or all microbes except spores
    ______complete elimination of microbes including spores

  47. 1st & most important tier is standard precautions
    What are these?
    • Hands are washed
    • gloves are worn when touching body fluid
    • masks are worn for splash occurrences
    • gowns worn if soiling/clothing is likely
    • equipment is cleaned properly
    • discard shaps instruments properly
  48. Tier two: Isolation
    What are these?
    • airborn precautions - mask (measles)
    • droplet precautions - mask (mumps)
    • contact precautions- gloves & gown (respiratory synctial virus, scabies)
  49. Standard precautions apply to all blood, all body fluids (except sweat) nonintact skin and mucous membranes
  50. Prepare for intrance into isolation room by applying precautions in what order?
    • 1. gown
    • 2. surgical mask or respirator
    • 3. eyewear/goggles
    • 4. clean gloves
  51. Removing items after leaving pt isolation room go in what order?
    • 1. gloves
    • 2. eyewear
    • 3. gown
    • 4. mask/respirator
  52. This prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate the operative area from the unsterile environment & maintains a sterile field for surger
    • surgical asepsis
    • use during: insertion of IV catheters/central lines; skin's integrity is broken as result of trauma, surgical incision or burns. insertion of catheters/surgical instr. into sterile body cavities
  53. Principles of Surgical asepsis:
    1. sterile remains sterile only when touching sterile (anything else unsterile)
    2. sterile objects ONLY on a sterile field
    3. out of sight/below waist = unsterile
    4. air currents =unsterile
    5. wet to sterile =unsterile
    6. fluid flow due to gravity = unsterile
    7. 1" border of field = unsterile
Card Set
Fund of Nursing
Safety ch. 34,37,38,47, 49