spreading news and information about media content through word of mouth usually via online discussion groups, chats, and emails
a computer communications model in which all users have equal abilities to store, send, and accept communications from other users.
peer to peer (p2p)
(the daily me) this could lead to technological isolation, as groups of like-minded individuals fail to interact with users of dissimilar thoughts
media organizations don't tell consumers what to think, but they tell them what to think about
audience theories (agenda setting)
content production and distribution, as well as marketing and other functions are controlled by a central unit or individual
an economic structure in which a few very large, very powerful, and very rich owners to control an industry or series of related industries
communication between two or more individuals, usually in a small group
communication to a large group or groups of people who remain largely unknown to the sender
requires audience to receive content when it is transmitted
(ex: live tv, radio)
allows audience to receive media at other times
recording of a live performance so it can be watched later
(turns synchronous into asynchronous)
a website on which a person posts regular journal type entries
primarily the journalism function of mass communication, which provides information about processes, issues, events, and other developments in society.
the interpretation of aspects of society, including how journalism, advertising, and public relations shape public opinion
the transference of the dominant culture and subcultures from one generation to the next, or to immigrants
performed by all three functions (surveillance, correlation, cultural transmission) inrolling the generation of content designed to entertain
a theoretical approach broadly influenced by marxist notions of the role of ideology, exploitation, capitalism, and the economy in understanding and eventually transforming society
a framework in studying theories of culture and communication that shuns the scientific approach and tries to examine the symbolic environment created by mass media and the role it plays in culture and society
communication is a symbolic process whereby reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed
carey's ritual view of communication
allowable uses of copyright protected work that does not regulate payment of royalties
magazines differ from newspapers in 3 ways:
1. more long form of writing
2. published less frequently
3. higher quality paper
what is broadcasting? (from agriculture)
spreading of seeds
what is broadcasting? (for communication)
spreading of signal and information for free through the air
a type of defamation that is written and published, such as a false attack on a person's character, which damages a person's reputation
developed by wilbur schramm in 1954 and based on the mathematical theory of communication. it includes a source, who encodes a message, or signal, which is transmitted (via the media or directly via interpersonal communication) to a destination, where the receiver decodes it
simplified communications model
communications scholar and historian who has shaped a cultural-studies approach to communication theory
the process of interacting with media content and critically analyzing it by considering its particular presentation, it underlying political or social messages, and ownership and regulation issues that may affect what is presented and in what form.
a principle that states that broadband networks should be free of restrictions on content, platforms, or equipment should not get preferential treatment on the network
the message beneath the message- the underlying, or implicit, message that is being conveyed by media content
edited audio clips from people interviewed
an unseen announcer or narrator talking while other activity takes place, either on radio or during a television scene
a device used in television sitcoms that generates prerecorded laughter, timed to coincide with punch lines or jokes
text online that is linked to another webpage, website, or different part of the same web page by HTML coding
short for really simple syndication, it lets users easily subscribe to feeds from a blog or website
a popular website in which users submit meterial to be voted on by other users, with the most popular material appearing on the homepage
website in which pages can be created and edited by anyone
guides available on television that provide program listings and some simple interactivity, such as ordering pay-per-view programs or buying cd's or dvd's of listed music or shows
electronic programs guide (EPG)
the practice of advertisers paying for actual products to be used and shown prominently in television shows and movies
a marketplace in which media ownership and diversity are severely limited and the actions of any single media group substantially affect its competitors, including determining the content and price of media products for both consumers and advertisers
the use of advertising and marketing techniques for social causes, such as anti-smoking or safe sex campaigns
the process in which media is made into computer-readable form
term originally used in audio recording for media analogous to the sound being re-created. it now refers to all nondigitalized media, such as print media, audio and video recording, photography, and film
a combination of different types of media in one package thus, film or video with sound is a type of multimedia, because it combines visual and audio elements. web pages that combine text, video, animation, audio, or graphics are another type
although a definiation is still being debated, for digital-media purposes, it can be defined as having 3 main elements:
1. a dialog that occurs between a human and a computer program
2. a dialog that occurs simultaneously or nearly so
3. the audience has some measure of control over what media content it sees and in what order
the ability of media content producers to provide content that is of interest to a specific user based either on criteria the user has selected, such as a zip code, or on automated tracking of their web viewing habits
the ability of media content producers to provide content based on a user's locale, either done automatically based on an isp or after the user has provided information such as a city name or zip code
the notion that sudiences cannot simply be considered consumers anymore but also often take an active role in producing content or information
content that has been created by users of a website or that has been uploaded to a website
a perspective that states that technology essentially "causes" certain behaviors and the creation of social systems
a protocol that enables the standardized transfer of text, audio, and video files, as well as email, from one address to another
hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP)
creating a hypertext link to another websites inside page or pages rather than to its homepage
a part of the main protocol for the internet that allows for computers to easily communicate with each other over a network
transmission control protocol
a coding format that describes how information should look on the web
hypertext mark up language (HTML)
a coding format similar to HTML but that allows for easy sharing of information and data about the information on the web, not only how it looks
extensible mark up language (XML)
a network connection that enables a large amount of bandwidth to the transmitted, which allows for more information to be sent in a shorter period of time
a network connection that does not provide very much bandwidth, thus receiving and sending information more slowly than broadband connections, dial up modems, and some of the early wireless connections with speeds of 56 khz or under
journalism done by amatuers or volunteers, either with citizen journalism websites, blogs, or as part of a mainstream news organization's website
a program that is usually audio or video that lets users easily subscribe, much like subscribing to a blog
a copyright law in the united states that makes it a criminal act to circumvent or alter digital rights management technologies that protect copyright works
digital millennium copyright act
television with a much higher resolution image and sharper image than a standard television signal
high definition television (HDTV)
television signals that are transmitted digitally rather than over the air, as in analog television broadcasting. digital tv provides better picture and sound quality and has greater capabilities to include interactive functions than analog television
simultaneously transmitting multiple channels of compressed digital content over the television airwaves
cost per thousand. the standar unit for measuring advertising rates for publications, based on circulation
rate in which people click on the ad
click through rate
paying a search engine such as google to have a listing appear prominently when searched
search engine marketing (SEM)
a strategy that utilizes website design, careful choice of keywords, links, and other techniques to show prominently in online searches
search engine optimization
a communication scholar who wrote understanding media and the gutenburg galaxy, among other books. he is perhaps most famous for creating the "global village" metaphor regarding electronic media and his often-misunderstood phrase "the medium is the message"
a manuscript book of individually bound pages
german printer credited with creating the first mechanical printing press in europe in 1455
one of a handful of surviving bibles printed by johannes gutenberg, considered the first mechanically printed works in europe
the first paperback book form, which cost ten cent. this made it acceptable even to the poor
publisher of the new york sun, he ushered in the era of the penny press when, on sept 3 1833, he began offering his paper on the streets for a penny
newspapers that sold for a penny, making them accessible to everyone. they differed from older newspaper forms n that they tried to attract as large an audience as possible and were supported by advertising rather than subscriptions.
legal agreements that permit newspapers in the same market or city to merge their business operations for reasons of economics yet maintain independent editorial operations
joint operating arrangements (JOAs)
created in 1970, it is intended to preserve a diversity of editorial opinion in communities where only two competing, or independently owned, daily newspapers exist.
newspaper preservation act
first patented by thomas edison in 1877 as a "talking machine" it used a tinfoil cylinder to record voices from telephone conversations. successive technological improvements in electronics and the type of material the sounds were recorded on made sound quality better
an improvement on thomas edisons phonograph in recording audio, it used beeswax to record sound rather than tinfoil. developed by alexander graham bell and inventor charles tainter
developed by inventor emile berliner, it used a flat disc to record sound rather than the cylinder that was used up to that time
the four biggest recording arts companies that control much of the music industry partly through their powerful distribution channels and ability to market music to mass audiences. they are universal music group, sony music, emi, and the warner music group
any small record production and distribution companies that are not part of the four major label companies. they include companies producing only one or two albums a year, as well as larger independents such as produce 66 percent of the albums each year but only 20 percent of the sales
cash or gifts given to radio disc jockeys by record labels in exchange for greater airplay given to the label's artists or most recent songs. the practice is now illegal after several scandals in the 1950s
the notion that selling a few of many types of items can be as profitable or even more profitable than selling many copies of a few items. the concept works especially well for online sellers such as amazon or netflix
various technologies or security codes used to protect copyrighted works from being illegally copied
digital rights management (DRM)
inventor of railway telegraphy in 1887, a type of wireless communication that allowed moving trains to communicate with each other and with stations, greatly reducing the number of railway collisions.
granville t. woods
italian inventor and creator of radio telegraphy, or wireless transmission, in 1899
considered the "father" of radio broadcasting technology because of his invention that permitted reliable voice transmissions for both point to point communication and broadcasting
lee de forest
inventor of the fm radio transmission, columbia university engineering professor
edwin howard armstrong
head of RCA. he helped push the development of television as a mass medium yet blocked the development of fm radio for years because its adoption would hurt am listenership and reduce demand for am radio receivers, which RCA produced and sold.
an act of congress that created the federal radio commission and that was intended to help establish some sort of regulation and order over the chaos of the largely unregulated airwaves. it helped establish the principle that the airwaves were a limited public good and that companies using those airwaves had a duty to act responsibly toward the public in terms of the type of material they broadcast
radio act of 1927
formed by the radio act of 1927, the commission was the precursor to the fcc and created a policy that favored fewer high-power radio broadcasting stations rather than more numerous, low-power stations.
federal radio commission (FRC)
the principal communication regulatory body at the federal level in the united states, est in 1934
federal communication commission (FCC)
a segment of time used by radio and television program planners to decide who the primary audience is during that time of day or night.
wilbur schramms communication model has three main elements in communication. what is NOT a part of his simplified model?
a source, who encodes
the correlation function of mass communication is important because
the media can help maintain social stability
the communication flow in the transmission model of communication is one-directional, from the sender to the receiver
the telegraph was much easier for the general public to use than the telephone
a cookie is information that a web site puts on a user's local hard drive so that it can recognize when that computer accesses the web site again.
interpersonal communication often interacts with and intersects mass communication
monopoly and oligopoly are synonymous economic media structures
which of the following is not part of media literacy?
E. all of the above
which of the following is NOT one of the three general categories in building media literacy?
C. media production practices
the grammar of media includes which of the following?
E. all of the above
which of the following is NOT one of the main ways of evaluating information found online?
B. making sure the source is a governmental agency
which of the following statements about the fragmentation of media channels is incorrect?
A. the fragmentation of media channels is drastically altering the media landscape, but this trend is lessened by the world wide web.
which of the following is not true of the commercial forces shaping media content?
E. large media companies like time warner, walt disney, and viacom are global in scope and therefore rarely can dominate local media
Concentration of media ownership is driven by which of the following forces?
a. Economies of scale that media owners can get by owning larger media companies in a variety of media types b. Federal rules that require media companies to acquire new media properties;
c. Diversity goals that can be met primarily through broad media ownership;
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
a. economies of scale that media owners can get by owning larger media companies in a variety of media types
Which of the following ethical precepts can be used in media?
D. all of the above
Utilitarianism is an approach to ethics that means
A. whatever does the most good for the most number of people is best
Business interests in media organizations can often supersede the public interests entrusted to that organization. This can happen in which of the following ways?
a. Advertisers threaten to stop advertising unless the media organization stops or changes coverage of the company or a controversial issue b. Lack of consumer power among disadvantaged groups can mean they get less news coverage or are mostly portrayed in a negative light
c. Cutting staff to save money can affect the quality of news coverage as journalists get even more overworked d. Journalists often lack professional development training because of media organizations' unwillingness to support such training
e. All of the above
e. all of the above
media literacy is a goal, not a process.
Media Grammar means understanding how media are created and produced and how aspects of different media types affect how stories and content are presented.
The media grammar of online media is fully developed, despite the relative newness of the medium.
It is difficult for many people to tell legitimate information from biased information online.
Advertisers can influence media content through product placement in shows in which their products are talked about or shown being used by the characters.
The foundations of the Internet were created when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) created ARPANet, the first national network of computers. In what year did this occur?
The technical procedure that provided computers from different places a common language to communicate is called
a. Transmission control protocol (TCP) b. Communication technical protocol (CTP)
c. Protocol for computer language (PCL) d. Advanced communication procedure (ACP)
e. None of the above
a. transmission control protocol (TCP)
In what year did the Defense Department adopt the TCP/IP protocols, the foundation for the Internet?
Who invented the World Wide Web (WWW)?
D. tim berners-lee
The first widely used graphical browser for the World Wide Web was called
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act dictated
A. that web radio stations must pay royalties for songs that are accessed
Technological determinism means that
B. technology essentially 'causes' certain behaviors
Analog media was originally used in __________ for media that was analogous to the sound it was recreating. It now refers to all __________.
C. audio recording; non-digitized media
Digitization is the process in which media
B. is made into computer-readable form
'Broadband' is a network connection that
C. allows for more information to be sent in a shorter period of time