After liftoff during an ITO, you should be committed to attitude instrument flying procedures due to
the potential for ______.
Before retracting gear and flaps, you should have indications of positive rate of climb on the ______.
VSI and ALT
The two DP types are ______.
Departure Procedure Plates/Charts
Obstacle Departure Procedures
______ departures provide heading and altitude to fly until you are capable of maintaining your cleared flight route using on-board navigation systems.
AETC Pilots are only required to read back numbers, what numbers?
Heading, altitude, altimeter settings
Holding fixes may be defined by what?
A NAVAID (VOR/NDB)
using a radial and DME from a NAVAID
a GPS Waypoint
a published intersection
How fast do you transition to instrument references during an instrument takeoff (ITO)? What is the
pitch attitude for an ITO?
At the rate outside references become unreliable.
Rotate to 7-8° nose high at 85 KIAS
The maximum length of an inbound leg of a holding pattern above 14,000 feet MSL is ______.
You are 70 NM from the Palacios VORTAC at FL180 and 240 KTAS. You are instructed to descend
to cross the Palacios VORTAC at 4000 feet MSL. What should your descent gradient be? What is the
resulting VSI if you maintain airspeed (assume no wind)?
Descent gradient = 140/70 = 2º (200 ft/NM)
VSI = 200 X (240/60) = 200 ft/NM X 4 NM/min = 800 fpm descent
At a groundspeed of 4NM per minute and a descent gradient of 3°, what is the VSI rate of descent?
VSI = angle (NM/min X 100)
VSI = 3 X (4 NM/min X 100)
VSI = 3 X 400
VSI = 1200 fpm
Prior to the IAF you should complete a W-HOLDS check. What do the letters in W-HOLDS stand
Letdown plate review
Speed as required
If starting a non-DME teardrop approach from below the published IAF altitude, you must fly
outbound ______ for every ______ feet below the IAF altitude before initiating the descent
15 seconds; 1000
What are the two categories of low altitude instrument approach procedures (IAPs)?
Course reversals, Procedure tracks
What are the two types of low-altitude course reversal approaches?
Procedure turn, Holding in lieu of procedure turn
What are the three common types of low-altitude procedure track approaches?
Straight-In, Arcing , Teardrop
When can you descend to the FAF altitude?
When established on the inbound segment of the approach
When will a procedure turn approach not be flown?
Cleared for Straight in
Established in Hold
Approaching the IAF for a procedure track approach you may use normal turn lead points if your
heading is within ______ of the procedure track course
How is a holding pattern in lieu of a procedure turn depicted on an instrument approach plate?
Plan view: same as a normal holding pattern but with bold black lines
Profile view: outbound and inbound course arrows shown
True or false? When flying a low altitude procedure turn approach you may begin the turn inbound at
True. However, you must complete turn on maneuvering side and cannot exceed remain within distance.
How are segments of procedure track approaches depicted?
By heavy black lines with arrowheads showing intended aircraft ground track.
You have been cleared the VOR/DME RWY 5 approach at Cochran Airport. How many turns are you expected to complete in holding?
One turn. If additional turns are required to lose excess altitude you must coordinate with ATC first.
When can you descend from the turn completion altitude on a non-DME high altitude, teardrop instrument penetration?
When established on the inbound segment of the approach.
What descent angle and VSI do you need to descend at 210 KTAS from 15,000 feet MSL to 3000 feet MSL in 30 NM (no wind)?
Descent Angle: 120/30 = 4°
VSI: 3.5 NM/min X 400 feet/NM = 1400 fpm
If flying a non-DME teardrop approach with no published turn altitude, initiate the inbound turn when
the aircraft is ______.
halfway between the IAF and FAF altitudes
While being radar vectored to final, attempt contact with the controlling agency if no transmissions are received for approximately _____.
If IMC conditions are likely to be encountered, when will missed approach instructions for a radar approach normally be issued?
On radar downwind or base leg
If ceiling is less than 500 feet above the MVA and visibility is less than 3 miles, the aircraft will be vectored to intercept the final approach course at least ______ from the FAF at a maximum intercept angle of _____ degrees
3 miles; 30
You are flying an ASR approach and the radar controller is providing recommended altitudes onfinal. These recommended altitudes approximate the ______ glidepath and will cease at the ______.
PAR; minimum descent altitude
How do you know you are at the MAP on an ASR approach?
You will be told by the controller.
You are at DA on a PAR approach when _____.
you reach published DA on the aircraft’s altimeter or the controller states “At Decision Altitude”, whichever occurs first
Typical runway lighting consists of a row of ______ lights on each side of the runway, ______ lights identifying the runway threshold, and ______ lights at the departure end. (D/1/1)
white; green; red
Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL) are flashing white lights used to ______.
mark the approach end of the runway
Where can you find a detailed diagram of the type of approach lighting identified by this symbol?
Which runway minimums do you use when flying a circling approach?
Use the circling minimums and MDA for the runway the approach is flown to. DO NOT use minimums for runway of intended landing.
How much obstacle clearance is provided when circling at the published MDA?
When flying a circling maneuver, is it permissible to fly at an altitude ABOVE the circling MDA?
If you are executing climbout instructions and the departure end of the runway is in sight, delay any
turn until ______.
past the departure end of the runway and 400 feet AGL
When executing a missed approach from a circling maneuver begin a _____.
climbing turn in the last known direction of the landing runway until established on the missed approach procedure/climbout instructions as appropriate
You have been cleared the GPS RWY 5 approach at Cochran Airport and instructed to enter holding at VIENNA. What mode must you select for the GPS before entering holding?
When you cross the FAF on a GPS approach, the track line to the MAP on the EHSI will turn
You are flying an ILS approach. You are past the localizer FAF and above the localizer MDA. You go two dots below the ILS glidepath. Do you have to go missed approach?
No, you may descend to the localizer MDA and transition to a localizer-only approach.
If you recapture the glideslope prior to the localizer MDA, you may continue the ILS approach.
Radar controllers provide obstacle clearance using _____.
On final for a no-gyro ASR, begin using half-standard rate turns _____.
only when directed by the controller
You would get a graphic depiction of the landing environment for a particular airfield _____.
from the airport sketch on an instrument approach plate for that airfield
When can you begin a descent from MDA during a circling maneuver?
When you are in a position to make a normal descent to landing, from base or final depending on the situation
When do you have to go missed approach from the MAP?
Landing environment not in sight
Not in a position to make a safe landing
Directed by the controller
What is an instrument departure?
Any IFR transition from takeoff to enroute structure
Departure Procedure (DP)
1) Departure Procedure Plates/Charts
2) Obstacle Departure Procedures
1) Airfields with no Published Departure
2) Not authorized at some airfields
VFR departure/IFR pickup
What is the meaning of a black inverted triangle with a “T” in the center?
IFR takeoff minimums and/or departure procedures are published
Information in front of IAP
Nonstandard mins do not apply to military
Nonstandard departure procedures do apply
When receiving a new in-flight clearance, what items must you read back to the controller?