Chapter 18 Test

  1. Industrial Revolution
    An intense phase of technological development and improvement in society
  2. Entrepreneurs
    those who risked their wealth by investing in new technology or new buisness ventures
  3. Capitalism
    • introduced by Adam Smith
    • the use of private money or goods to produce a profit of more money goods
  4. Agricultural Revolution
    introduction of new american crops such as potatoes and corn which contributed to food supply and farming advances
  5. Open-Field Farming
    • land was divided into strips and worked by the villagers
    • one third of the land remained unplanted so that the soil could be replenished with nutrients
    • part of the land was common- anyone could farm
  6. Crop Rotation
    • a method of alternating different kinds of crops to preserve soil fertility
    • crops grew healthier too
  7. Seed Drill
    • Jethro Tull introduced it in 1701
    • Allowed people to use seeds more efficiently by planting them in regular rows and at the proper depth rather than scattering them by hand over a wide area
    • Tull also developed the horse drawn hoe
  8. Enclosures
    when land owners enclosed their land with hedgerows to stop communal farmers farming on their land for free
  9. Domestic System
    • also called the putting out system
    • people worked from their homes
    • merchants bought wool from a farmer and distributed it to villiages and townspeople to clean weave or spin into yarn in winter.
    • Successful because production costs were low
    • Unsuccessful if winter ended and they went out to farm early
  10. Spinning jenny
    • a muscle powered wooden machine that could spin eight cotton threatds at a time
    • quickly replaced the spinning wheel
  11. Richard Arkwright
    • developed the waterframe
    • built one of englands first factories in Cromford
    • father of the factory system
  12. Water frame
    a large water powered spinning machine
  13. Edmund Cartwright
    invented the first power loom which eventually drove handweavers out of buisness
  14. Cotton Gin
    • Developed by Eli Whitney
    • separated the seeds from cotton more quickly and efficiently than doing it by hand
    • made cotton production in the US profitable
  15. Urbanization
    • the growth of cities
    • increased dramatically in the 1800s
  16. Liberalism
    • became the dominant political philosophy of the new industrial middle class
    • emphasized the importance of individual liberty in all areas
    • focused on freedom of conscience, freedom of thought and speech, and freedom to persue your own economic interests
    • liberals believed the govt should ensure equal treatment under the law for all people, despite wealth or social position
  17. Utilitarianism
    • Introduced by Jeremy Bentham
    • argued that laws should be judged according to their usefullness
    • laws that did not bring the greatest happiness of the greatest number were abandoned
    • favored majority
  18. Socialism
    • belief that individual interest must give way to the interests of society as a whole
    • political equality was meaningless
  19. Means of production
    • the capital and equipment needed to make and exchange goods and use them for the common good of the people
    • goods and income were shared, not very good
  20. Utopian Socialism
    • Charles Fourier introduced it
    • people lived and worked together in perfect harmony and shared everything
    • Robert Owen- famous utopian socialist
    • nonexistant
  21. Trade Unions
    Groups that organized due to frustration about conditions and working problems
  22. Strike
    • a general walkout of all workers in the union
    • usually over wages
    • more workers on strike, more pressure on employers
  23. John Stuart Mill
    • said the govt should stay out of people's lives as much as possible
    • thought govt power should be limited and the govt should promote eductaion
  24. Locomotive
    a steam powered engine which pulled a train of connected cars on iron rails at 30 mph
  25. Robert Fulton
    • American inventor and entreprenuer
    • put a steam engine on his boat
    • was successful on the Hudson River
  26. Dynamo
    • electric generator developed in 1831
    • led to development of telegraph
  27. Samuel Morse
    developed Morse code- dots and dashes
  28. Guglielmo Marconi
    • italian
    • sent the first radio transmission across the Atlantic
  29. Intermal Combustion Engine
    burned gasoline directly inside the engine
  30. Corporations
    • business organizations in which large numbers of people purchase shares of stocks or certificates of partial ownership
    • raised large amounts of capital for investment
  31. financiers
    bought companies as investments and then sold them
  32. Monopoly
    • when a business controlled the production and sale of a product or service in order to dominate a particular market
    • ex: Andrew Carnegee and railroads
  33. Trusts
    • Combinations of similar businesses under the direction of a singel group
    • reduced risks and competition
  34. Separate Spheres
    • idea that men belonged in the public world of business and got while women ran the household
    • many middle class ppl believed in this
  35. Charles Darwin
    • founder of Evolution
    • not liked by the church
    • came up with the theory of natural selection in the origin of species
  36. Natural Selection
    • survival of the fittest
    • most fit pass on jeans and weak will die off
  37. Social Darwinism
    • belief by rich people that they were genetically superior to others because they had the "ability" to be rich
    • manipulated theory
  38. Marie Curie
    • Woman who studied radioactivity for xrays
    • died of radioactive poisoning
  39. Engels and Marx
    • Wrote the Communist Mamifesto
    • said that the poor would one day overthrow the rich violently
  40. Proletariat
    • new working class identified by marx
    • would someday rise up and violently overpower the walthy
  41. Romanticism
    • new form of art and literature associated with strong emotion
    • many romance novels from it
  42. Realism
    • new form of art and literature that represented real everyday life
    • led to photography
  43. Communism
    Where the government completley controls everything about the citizens and there is no individuality
Card Set
Chapter 18 Test
Test of 2/17/11