AP Euro- Industrial Revolution

  1. Industrial Revolution
    Power supplies

    • Animal/Human Powerà((BIG
    • JUMP- food no longer the constraining factor) 1790s) H2O Power- fall line, like
    • waterfallà
    • (1840s) Steam power- coalà(1870s-1880s)
    • Internal Combustion


    • Poor farms and work houses for the
    • deserving poor

    Teach children a trade

    Factory workers

    16 hour days
  2. Cottage System
    Well established in England

    Families working all together
  3. Spinning Jenny
    • Allows for cloth the be produced
    • on a larger scale

    Another invention- the water wheel
  4. Luddites
    • 1812, Activist Group
    • Wanted to destroy mechanical Looms
    • Unskilled workers loosing their market
  5. Mines Act
    • 1842
    • Prevented women and children from working underground
  6. Reform Bill
    • 1832
    • Lowers property requirements to expand the franchise
  7. Chartists
    • "people's charter of 1838" (1842
    • Working class combines socialist ideas
    • wanted parliament reform
    • 6 demands on people's charter- annual elections for house of commons, universal male sufferage, secret ballot
  8. Sexual division of labor
    • Unskilled- 16 hr days, 6 day week (women and children)
    • Skilled- Men
  9. Liberalism
    • Ideologies- 1815 to 1848
    • Introduced by the American and French Revolutions

    • Central ideas were liberty and
    • equality

    • Wanted representative government,
    • equality before the law, and the natural rights of man

    • Economically called for laissez
    • faire approach

    • Marxists and socialists felt it
    • did not go far enough to help working people
  10. Class Consciousness
    • Material goods become how people
    • perceive you since you haven’t known the family for generations upon
    • generations like the rural areas used to be.

    • To move up on the social ladder,
    • one must change their clothes and where they live
  11. Metternich

    • Austrian diplomat (in charge of
    • foreign policy)

    • He and conservatives believed the
    • state should be as it was before 1789, with the monarchy, the aristocracy, and
    • the church in control

    • Saw liberalism as leading to
    • bloodshed and revolution

    Stability was prized

    • Opposed nationalism since it
    • threaten to tear apart the multi-national Austrian Empire

    • Carlsbad Decrees: required the 38
    • German States to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers
    • and created a committee with spies and informers to punish any liberal or
    • radical organization

    • Part of the Holy Alliance btwn
    • Austria, Prussia, and Russia to stamp out revolutionary moments
  12. Romanticism
    • Rejected classicism (an artistic
    • movement that looks back to the Greeks and Romans) and the enlightenments
    • rationality, order, and restraint

    • Believed in emotional exuberance,
    • unrestrained imaginations and spontaneity

    • Romantic artists tended to live
    • dramatic lives, with suicides, duels, and a bohemian lifestyle.

    • Romantic artists, Lord Byron,
    • Goethe, Poe, Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Delacroix, Turner,
    • Beethoven
  13. Crystal palace
    • An Exhibition in 1848
    • England
    • Showed off the technological advancements of England , and their power durin ind. rev.
  14. Factory Act
    • 1833
    • Limits women and children's work hours
  15. Combination Acts

    • Forbid workers to form unions and
    • do collective bargaining.

    Repealed in 1824

    • 1825 combo act allowed unions but
    • restricted what they could do.
  16. Ten Hours Act
    • 1847
    • Children can only work 10 hrs/day
    • Took women and children out of the workforce
  17. Laissez-Faire
    • Economy
    • Liberals Pro
    • Gov't doesn't regulate the Economy
  18. Grand National Consolodated Trade Union

    • Tried to bring together all of the
    • trade unions

    But it failed!
  19. Craft Unions
    • Amalgamated
    • Society of Engineers (British Trade Union)

    • Growth of RR allowed for Unions to
    • not only be local

    Wanted sick and disabled benefits

    Funeral allowance

    Friendly society

    Trade Union Act in 1871
  20. Constitutional Monarchy
  21. France wants Louis XVIII to be a
    • const. monarch, but he dies with no heir and Charles X destroys the monarchy
    • and becomes abs. 1830 rev- put Louis Phillippe on throne as const. monarchist.
  22. Marx and Engles
    • Communism: violent revolution and
    • NO private property and vs. socialism- non violent revolution, limit private
    • property, social projects etc

    Karl Marx

    Communist Manifesto

    • First to use the terms “bougie”
    • and “prolat”

    History is about class struggle

    • Claims that the bougie exploits
    • prolats

    • Workers will rise up and seize the
    • means of production, and then you will get a workers utopia in which all will
    • work according abilities and receive according to their needs.

    • All property will be held
    • collectively

    • Religion is what is stopping
    • people from
  23. Nationalism
    • (Link with
    • liberalism until 1848, NOT after)

    • Each people had their own culture
    • and history and deserved to rule themselves in their own country. Favored
    • democracy and republicanism

    • Really a faction at the time, even
    • among one language there were dozens of dialects and little sense of common
    • identity

    • The press and increased education
    • brought by industrialization actually created unified ethnicities, which then
    • took on a life of their own.

    • Way to justify self-rule and
    • revolution
  24. socialism
    • French Utopian Socialism (comes b4
    • communism and out of the Revolution)

    • Government centrally planned
    • Economy

    Limited or no private property

    • Rich and poor more equal
    • economically (high taxes on the rich)

    • Charles Fourier (most famous
    • French socialist)

    No marriage

    Sexual Freedom

    Equality of sexes
  25. Holy Alliance
    • Conservatism
    • Part of Holy Alliance btwn Austria, Prussia, Russia to stamp out revolutionary moments
  26. Malthus
    • At the time, he was right
    • Principle of population (1795)
    • Population grows faster than the food supply
  27. Ricardo
    • Iron Law of Wages
    • Wages will always be at the substence level becausee population growth
  28. Battle of Peterloo
    • August, 1819
    • Catalist for 6 acts
    • Protest for Universal male sufferage
  29. Corn Laws
    • 1846
    • Import terrifs on grain to protect land owners at the expense of the workers
  30. Congress of Vienna
    Ensuring Legitimacy

    Rightful Monarchs restored

    • Power in the hands of the
    • conservative interests=the monarchy, the church, and the aristocracy


    • Nations that lost territory got
    • territory in exchange

    Balance of Power-

    • Ensure that stability in Europe
    • and that France was contained

    • Made up of: Britain, Austria,
    • Russia, Prussia, France

    • Decided that the Congress of
    • Vienna (1814-1815)


    • Restored Bourbons with Louis XVIII
    • (again after Napoleon)

    • Very leniently treated given 1792
    • boundaries and paid no war reparations

    Contained France-

    Created a series of Buffer states

    • Combines the Belgium and Holland
    • to create the Kingdom of the NED

    • Prussia also received territory to
    • strengthen it

    • Created German Confederation, a 39
    • state group with Austria as a dominant power


    • Continued to meet periodically to
    • solve Europe’s disputes peacefully. Called the Congress System.

    • Compensation- people are awarded
    • for winning land

    England got colonies of France

    • Prussia got part of Saxony (but
    • not all as it wanted)

    • Russia got a puppet state of
    • Poland (but a smaller one that it wanted)

    • Austria lost Belgium but gained a
    • lot in northern Italy
  31. French Revolution of 1830
    Liberals vs conservatives

    • Liberals loose because of lack of
    • unity, and the conservatives win


    1815- restore Louis XVII (Burbon)

    Constitutional monarchy

    • Limited to elite (regardless of
    • social class) votes

    • Charles X (late 1820s) takes the
    • throne (Louis has no male heirs)

    • Gets rid of constitution and tries
    • to be an absolute monarchy--- really STUPID


    • People of Paris rise up and put
    • Louis Philippe on throne under a constitutional monarchy
  32. French Revolution of 1848
    • Before: Constitutional Monarchy
    • with Louis Philippe

    • Groups: Bourgeoisie/workers, Elite
    • Bourgie/royals

    • 2nd- All liberals-
    • moderates who only want an extension of suffrage vs. the radicals who want
    • universal male suffrage

    • Goals: more male suffrage, freedom
    • of speech and the press

    2nd- right to work

    • Results: Provisional gov’t/ 2nd
    • republic to military ruleto 1848-Louis Napoleon is elected president to 1851-
    • L.N. takes absolute power.
  33. Austrian Uprising of 1848
    State of country before:


    • Controlled by long standing
    • conservative minister

    • He left the empire nearly bankrupt
    • and in continual need of soldiers



    Socialists and Liberals

    Goals of Revolution:

    • Distraught by all of the
    • separations of the Hapsburgs

    Wanted to unify divisions

    Wanted self determination


    End of serfdon in Austria

    Change in govt

    • *the constitutional monarchy was
    • short lived as Princess Sofia (wife of the king) tells the king to give the
    • crown to her son (Franz Josef), which turns the country back into absolutism
  34. Prussian Uprising of 1848


    Didn’t like Frederick III

    • Promised a united German state and
    • constitution


    National Assembly


    • Goals of
    • Revolution:

    • Parliamentary
    • voting

    • Freedom of
    • the press



    • Liberals
    • loose

    • 1850
    • Frederick IV raises an army and takes back the country
Card Set
AP Euro- Industrial Revolution
Shelby's Euro cards