1. Local Processing
    left hemisphere processing of single aspects of stimuli - detailed "part" analysis
  2. Tertiary Cortex
    Luria's zones of overlapping between lobes (e.g., O-T-P), related to highest levels of functioning
  3. stereognosis
    recognition of objects by touch
  4. executive functions
    • brain managers for planning, organizing, monitoring,
    • evaluating, modifying behaviors
  5. kindling
    initial brain damage causes additional damage
  6. pathognomic signs
    symptoms that are clearly diagnostic of a known disorder; hard signs
  7. coup-countercoup injury
    brain hits one part of skull and then bounces off and hits another; common in decleration
  8. contralateral neglect
    ignoring stimuli on side opposite injury; more often related to R parietal and L side neglect
  9. decussation
    crossed sensory and motor pathways allowing contralateral control
  10. Wernike's aphasia
    speaking clearly without meaning "word salad" in temporal lobe near the Sylvian Fissure
  11. visual agnosia
    unable or difficulty recognizing objects
  12. scotoma
    small blind spot due to occipital damage and compensated for by nystagmus
  13. prospagnosia
    unable or difficulty recognizing faces
  14. paragraphia/paraphasia
    writing/saying the wrong word
  15. papilledema
    bulging eyes due to increased CSF after brain injury
  16. nystagmus
    rapid eye movements to fill in gaps that can be caused by cranial nerve damage
  17. ideomotor apraxia
    trouble carrying out individual motor acts even though they still have concepts of motor activities
  18. ideational apraxia
    trouble with the concept of the motor activity even though individual motor acts can be completed
  19. hemianopia
    • loss of vision in one field of vision in both eyes,
    • resulting from damage posterior to the optic chiasma in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field loss
  20. dysdiadochokinesis
    shifting from one motor response to another
  21. constructional apraxia
    • trouble with or inability to preform complex graphomotor and constructional tasks in
    • light of adequate vision and motor functions
  22. conduction aphasia
    a fluent aphasia with poor word repetition and adequate comprehension area
  23. Broaca's aphasia
    non-fluent, halting, or absent speech with word finding difficulties; naming difficulties (anomia)
  24. ataxia
    coordination problems resulting in irregular motor performance
  25. apraxia
    trouble with voluntary movement b/c of sensory or motor deficits
  26. aphasia
    loss of or difficulty with receptive +/or expressive language
  27. anosognosia
    lack of recognition of deficits often in R parietal lobe dysfunction
  28. agnosia
    failure or limited recognition of stimuli in spite of intact senses
  29. Gerstmann Syndrome
    agnosia, R/L confusion, acalculia, agraphia from L parietal damage
  30. anarthia/dysarthia
    inability to speak/difficulty with speech, caused by motor cortex or cranial nerve damage
  31. white matter
    • "superhigway" pathways allowing for intermodal
    • connections and complex behaviors; more in R hemisphere
  32. homonculus
    • "little man" the arrangement of known area
    • representations in somatosensory and motor cortex; legs medial; face lateral
  33. commisure
  34. commisure
    white matter that connect the two hemispheres
  35. association cortex
    • higher-level cortex that integrates across sensory and or motor function including parietal,
    • occiptal, and temporal lobes
  36. primary zone
    sorting and recording incoming sensory info
  37. secondary zone
    • organizes and codes info from primary zone; perceives input (sensory) or prepares output
    • (motor) - damage may lead to agnosias and aphasias
  38. tertiary zone
    data is merged from multiple sources and collated for organizing complex behavioral response
  39. antagonist
    drug that inhibits the effects of a neurotransmitter
  40. agonist
    a drug that facilitates the effects of a neurotransmitter
  41. Implicit memory
    automatic performance of a routinized skill; likely to be related to cerebellar/basal ganglia & frontal circuits/procedural memory
  42. declarative memory
    prior knowledge or crystallized abilities; probably related to the integrity of the media & lateral temporal lobes - explicit memory
  43. ventral stream
    • the "what" visual stram btwn the occipital &
    • temporal lobes, providing object recognition
  44. retrograde amnesia
    loss of pre-injury memory - suggesting more global cortical destruction
  45. retrograde amnesia
    loss of pre-injury memory - suggesting more global cortical destruction
  46. anterograde amnesia
    inability to recall events and learn new info after insult
  47. dorsal stream
    • the "what" occipital-parietal stream, necessary
    • for perceiving spatial relationships and perception of self in environment
  48. afferent
    signal going toward CNS from lower to higher levels of processing
  49. efferent
    signal going from the CNS and from higher to lower levels of processing
  50. ventral
    the posterior/inferior part of brain, contrasted with dorsal
  51. medial
    toward the midline of the brain or body
  52. lateral
    toward the side of the brain or body
  53. dorsal
    the anterior/superior part of the brain
  54. superior
    toward the top of the brain
  55. Kennard principle
    the belief that early CNS damage is less likely to result in long-term deficits than later damage; unlikely to be uniformly true
  56. crowding hypothesis
    • belief that undamaged brain areas can "take over"
    • for damaged brain areas, resulting in some sparing of function, but that both the spared and original functions subserved by the undamaged brain area are subsequently depressed
  57. central nervous system (CNS)
    w/in bony structures; brain and spinal cord
  58. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    outside of bony structures; somatic and autonomic
  59. somatic nervous system
    voluntary movement and regulation
  60. autonomic nervous system
    involuntary movement
  61. primary neurotransmitters
  62. acetylcholine,
    • norepinepherine,
    • dompamine,
    • seratonin,
    • glycine,
    • GABA
  63. sympathetic
    generates energy - fight, flight, freeze (dialate pupils, +heart rate, broncials open, -stomach, bladder relaxed) - norepinepherine
  64. parasympathetic
    conserves energy - relaxation (constrict pupils, +saliva, -heart rate, constrict bronchials, +stomach, constrict bladder)
  65. Diencephalon
    thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system
  66. thalamus
    maintains wakefulness; sensory relay
  67. hypothalamus
    autonomic regulation; influences endocrine system
  68. basal ganglia
  69. motor pathways; loops with coritcal areas
  70. corpus collosum
    massive tract of white matter connecting the 2 hemispheres
  71. ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)
    • a cluster of nerve pathways that receive input from all sensory modalities and extend from the pons to the thalamus - involved in
    • regulating wakefulness and sleep cycle
  72. amygdala
    small paired structures near hippocampi - important in drives
  73. hippocampus
  74. store information for future use, encoding, involved in impulse and emotion control
  75. cingulate gyrus
    neural pathway that connects limbic structures and prefrontal lobes
  76. drug classes
    • I -illegals;
    • II-highly abusive, but medically useful;
    • III-abusable como drugs;
    • IV-mild abuse potential
  77. Levels of the CNS
    • Proencephalon (forebrain)
    • Mesencephalon (midbrain)
    • Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
    • Spinal cord
  78. Proencephalon
    • Telencephalon
    • cerebral hemispheres and cortex
    • subcortical white matter
    • basal ganglia
    • basal forebrain nuclei
    • Diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  79. Mesencephalon
    • cerebral penduncles
    • midbrain tectum
    • midbrain tegmentum
  80. Rhombencephalon
    • Metencephalon
    • pons
    • cerebellum
    • Mylencephalon
    • medulla
  81. How manay crania nerves are there?
  82. CNI
    Olfactory nerve - smell
  83. CNII
    Optic nerve - vision
  84. Which nerves control occulomotor?
    CN III, IV, and VI
  85. CNIII
    Occulomotor nerve - parasympathetic pupi constrictor and lens for near vision
  86. CN IV
    Trochlear nerve - move eyes down and in
  87. CN V
    Trigeminal nerve - sensory input for face, mouth, and sinuses
  88. CN VI
    Abducens nerve - outward movement of eyes
  89. CN VII
    Facial nerve - facial expression (motor), taste anterior 2/3 of tongue
  90. CN VIII
    Vestibulochlear nerve - hearing and vestibular sensation
  91. CN IX
    Glossopharyngeal nerve - taste posterior 1/3 of tongue, sensation in posterior pharynx
  92. CN X
    Vagus nerve - swallowing, voicebox, parasympathetics to heart, lungs, GI, taste from epiglottis and pharyns, baroreceptors
  93. CN XI
    Spinal accessory nerve - muscles in the neck and shoulders
  94. CN -XII
    Hypoglossal nerve - intrinsic muscles of the tongue
Card Set
brain areas and functions