Dental materials

  1. What is the purpose of mouth guards and splints?
    • protect the teeth and their supporting structures
    • school sports
    • bruxism
  2. list 3 different types of mouth guards
    • sports mouthgaurd
    • night guard
    • splint
  3. List 3 different types of mouth guards for sports. Which of these are over-the-counter
    • stock guards
    • boil and bite guard
    • custom-made guard
    • stock and boil and bite are OTC
  4. Which type of sports mouthguard comes in 3 different sizes, cost less, are poor fitting, may be uncomfortable to wear, and provide the least amount of protection?
    stock guard
  5. Which type of sports mouthguard can be found in sporting good stores, are relatively inexpensive, are flexible because they are made of thermoplastic material, are poor fitting, hand adapted to the teeth and arch, and are difficult to cut and adapt?
    boil and bite, or flexible guards
  6. Which type of sports mouth guard are professionally made from impressions, and thermoplastic material with a vacuum, they are much more expensive, but the fit is excellent, and the bite is comfortable
    custom-made guard
  7. sports guards can absorb about _____% of the energy from a traumatic hit to the mouth
  8. Which type of mouth guards are made to cover the maxillary teeth and bone, and occasionally made for both arches, and can protect the lip from laceratios?
    professionally made sports mouth guards
  9. How thick should the mouth guard material be?
    • 4 mm for heavy-contact sports
    • 2 mm for less physical sports
  10. What type of mouth guard is used to treat bruxism? But it does not stop the grinding habit.
    night guard (splint)
  11. What are 2 types of mouth guards used to treat TMJ (splint)?
    • hard acrylic: made in dental lab; more chair time to adjust
    • thermoplastic sheets of polyethylene material
  12. What are 5 important factors in the maintenance of mouth guards?
    • clean daily
    • rinse/brush with liquid soap
    • air dry
    • store in hard container
    • no alcohol or bleach
  13. Where does stain accumulate in the enamel?
    enamel is composed of almost entirely mineral (97%) with microscopic spaces between the enamel rods, these spaces are where stain collects
  14. When does teeth bleaching occur?
    when hydrogen peroxide, or nonperoxide bleaching material passes through the spaces in the enamel and oxidizes the stains, resulting in a lighter color
  15. What might accelerate the bleaching oxidizing process?
    • low-intensity heat
    • high-intensity light
  16. What has research shown about acid etching before the application of bleach?
    that it does not improve the bleaching, and it only adds complications such as increased sensitivity
  17. What are 6 main ingredients of bleaching products?
    • hydrogen peroxide system:
    • hydrogen peroxide
    • carbamide peroxide
    • urea peroxide
    • non-hydrogen peroxide system:
    • sodium chloride
    • oxygen
    • natrium fluoride
  18. Why do some bleach products contain potassium nitrate and fluoride?
    to help reduce sensitivity
  19. What are 2 different types of teeth stains?
    • extrinsic: on tooth surface
    • intrinsic: internally on tooth structure (developting)
  20. What are 6 foods or drinks that are commonly known to contribute to the staining of teeth?
    • coffee
    • tea
    • red wine
    • cola drinks
    • grape juice
    • berries
  21. What are 2 ways that some extrinsic stains on the surface can be removed totally or impart?
    • hand or ultrasonic scaling
    • coronal polishing
  22. What type of stains may require bleaching to remove them?
    stains that have penetrated the enamel surface and cannot be polished or scaled away
  23. Which discolorations of stains are easier to remove; yellow-brown, or blue-grey and black?
  24. What are 2 things that often cause bue-grey or black stains?
    • chemicals or drugs:
    • tetracycline
    • doxycycline
  25. Which type of bleach is better to used? 35% hydrogen peroxide? or 35% carbamide peroxide?
    35% carbamide peroxide
  26. When a bleaching procedure is to be done in the office, when is it best to record the starting shade of the pts teeth?
    before beginning the bleaching procedure
  27. What type of bleaching has become a popular choice because it can be completed in one visit? When used with a curing light, plasma arc light, or laser light, it can be done in as little as 45 min to an hour.
    in-office 'power bleaching'
  28. Where should bleaching materials be stored and why?
    • in the fridge
    • to prolong shelf-life
  29. What happens when teeth are isolated by the rubber dam for a period of time?
    they become dehydrated, which makes them appear whiter than they will when they become rehydrated
  30. true or false. dehydration of teeth may also contribute to an increase in sensitivity during the procedure
  31. What happesn when the pulp of a tooth dies?
    the necrotic breakdown products of the pulpal tissue, or hemoglobin from blood in the pulp escapes in to the dentinal tubules causing staining of the dentin
  32. What does bleaching of nonvital teeth involve?
    removing restoration from root canal, and bleaching internally
  33. Which type of bleach technique includes a commercially prepared bleaching gel or paste made in the office from sodium peroxide monohydrate and 30% hydrogen peroxide is sealed into the pulp chamber with a temporary restoration; the pt returns in 3-5 days, and the bleaching material is removed.
    'walking bleach' technique
  34. Why do all internal bleaching procedures require that a seal be established at the base of the endodonic access preparation just coronal to the level of the ingival attachment of the tooth?
    to prevent leaking of the bleachi in to the tubules
  35. What is an attack on the root surface by cells and enzymes in the periodontal tissues that can eat a hole through the root causing the pt to lose it?
    external root resoprtion (has occured when bleach is used internally)
  36. How does bleach work?
    it passes through the enamel and oxidizes the pigment in dentin
  37. What is the chemical that is most often used in home bleaching?
    10-22% carbamide peroxide
  38. What two components make up carbamide peroxide?
    • urea
    • hydrogen peroxide
  39. What might be added to home bleach, carbamide peroxide to add thickness and flavor?
  40. Which types of bleach claim not to cause tooth sensitivity or gingival irritation?
    nonperoxide gels
  41. How often are home bleach trays to be worn?
    • 30 minutes twice daily or
    • over night
  42. What is the usual time period to use bleach trays?
    2 weeks
  43. What is the recommended time frame for follow up visits when using home bleach?
    2-3 weeks
  44. What are 3 different types of over the counter bleach products?
    • bleaching strips
    • paint-on bleach
    • bleaching gels applied in stock trays
  45. What is the most common used over the counter bleach product?
    bleaching strips
  46. How much hydrogen peroxide do over the counter bleaching strips deliver to teeth?
  47. how many teeth do the over the counter bleaching strips cover?
    the anterior six teeth in each arch
Card Set
Dental materials
week five