When Sergio accepts an explanation because it comes from an expert, he is using ______ as a basis for his belief
Before accepting the claims of scientists, it is worthwhile to
1. evaluate the credentials
2. examine researcher's funding
3. examine the reputation of the institution represented by the person
Scientific skepticism means:
ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigation
The scientific approach reconginzes that both intuition and authority
are sources of ideas about behavior
A background in research methods will help people:
1. read research reports critically
2. evaluate the methods used in research studies
3. decide whether research conclustions are reasonable
The 4 general goals of scientific research are:
3. determine causes of
4. explain behavior
Basic Reseach tries to answer questions about:
1. The nature of behavior
2. theoretical issues
According to Goodstien's (2000) "evolved theory of science":
1. observations are made to public to be replicated
2. Science flourishes with an open exchange of ideas
3.Reviewed by peers & published
3 types of evidence required to identify a cause of behavior
1. Covariation of the cause and effect
2. elimination of alternative explanations
3. temporal precedence
A psychologist was hired to do research on strategies for reducing the incidents of road-rage. this study is an example of _____ research:
The APA has a computer database that contains abstracts called:
"squeaky wheel gets the grease" is an example of one of the sources of research ideas called ____.
Theories generate new knowledge
Research can reveal weakness in theory
Hypothesis about behavior generate theories
theories can be modified with new research findings
Sources of reseach ideas
1. past research
3. common sense
Tentative idea or questions that is waiting for evidence to support or refute is called:
An investigator should use _____if they want to use "key article" and then search for subsequent articles that cited this article.
Social Sciences Citation Index
Results of a study can confirm the prediction and support the hypothesis
Before conducting a research project, an investigator will conduct a thorough ____ search to review past studies on the topic.
Jose conducted a new research project and accidentally made an amazing discovery. His discovery is the result of ____
The APA Ethic Code has ____ principles and ____ ethical standards
All institutions in which animal research is carried out mus have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committe that is ___
1. charged with reviewing animal research procedures.
2. composed of one scientist, 1 vet, and 1 community member
3. charged with ensuring all regulations are adhered to.
Informed consent procedure may bias the sample and limit generalizablity of the results
Any procedure that limits an individual's freedom to consent to participate in a study can be _____.
3 Basic principle of the Belmont Report
2. respect for others
In some cases, the risks entailed with loss of confidentiality are so great that researchers may wish to apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality from the ____.
US Dept of Health and Human Services
If researchers withhold info, use deception, and there is a potential for harmful effects on particpations, a(n) ____ must be done.
Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of a ______ study
Milgram's obedience study was purportedly an experiment on _____.
memory and learning
To be assured that research procedures have minimized risk to participants, a _____ must be done before research can be approved.
Any event, situation or behavior that varies is called a ______.
In the non-experimental method the third-variable problem refers to ____.
In lab experiments, the major advantage is _____ an the major disadvantage is _____
control over extraneous variables; artificial atmosphere
the marital status of the participants is an example of a ______ variable.
researchers found that as the temperature in a city increased there was also an increase in the number of crimes reported. This is an example of a ______ relationship.
in an experimental study, the variable that is considered the "cause" is the _____.
The experimental method eliminates the influence of _____ variables by using the random assignment procedure.
The number of students in a class is an example of a _____ variable
number of inches in a foot is a variable
The time it took participants to complete the computer task is an example of a ____ variable.
If participants are aware their behavior is being measured and it changes their behavior, the measure is said to be _____.
When a measurement scale is unreliable the true score is unreliable, any measure made will likely be composed of a _____ true score and _____ error.
Mary weighed herself this morning and weighed 120 pounds on her scale at home. A few minutes later she weighed again and the scale showed she weighed 125 pounds. Most likely the scale Mary used was _____.
Dr. Mary reviewed a measurement scale designed to measure extroversion and said that it appeared to measure extroversion. this is called _____.
When you read about reliablity in an article, the correlation b/t two test scores will usually be referred to as the _______ coefficient
Which of the following is an indicator of the internal consistency reliability of a measure?
split- half reliablility & Cronbach's Alpha
A group of students took a cognitive development test on Monday and then took the same test again the following week. Most likely the researchers were assessing the ______ of the test.
What is the best correlation score?
closest to 1 or -1
-1 to 0
0 to 1
One way to assess the stability of measures is by computing a Pearson ____.