Psychology 340 Exam 2

  1. Interview as a Test
    • gather data about someone
    • help describe someone
    • make predictions about someone
    • can be evaluated psychometrically
    • interview data can stand alone
  2. Interviews are used a lot in clinical psychology and other fields like...
    • medicine/nursing
    • law
    • art architecture
  3. Social Facilitation
    The tendency to act like those around us
  4. Interview particiapants influence each other's...
    • behavior
    • -positive correlation between activity levels of suspect and officer
    • mood
    • -interviewee anger relate to interviewer anger
  5. The interviewer could set the tone of the interview
  6. Directive
    Interviewer guides the interview with questions
  7. Indirective
    Interviewee guides interview with answers
  8. Structured Vs. Unstructured
    Standardized across administration?
  9. Selection
    Elicits information about qualifications/ employment duties
  10. Diagnostic
    Assesses for clinical diagnosis and underlying symptoms
  11. Evaluation
    Goal: is the interviewee a good fit for the job? professionally and personally?
  12. Question Styles
    • totally open-ended
    • open-ended, but specific
    • direct
    • confrontation
  13. Structured Clinical Interview
    • specific set of questions administered the same way
    • in order
    • with rules for probing
    • cut-points used for diagnostic purposes
    • reliable, but perhaps not valid
    • assumes respondent is self-aware and honest with the interviewer
  14. Structured Clinical Interview Goal
    determine if mental disorder is present
  15. Case History Interview Goal
    get a biographical sketch of interviewee and understand interviewee so you can interpret other test scores
  16. Case History Interview
    • takes a development perspective; from birth to present
    • work history, education, medical, family, hobbies, social, etc.
    • open- and closed-ended questions used
    • use computers to do this and structured interviews?
  17. Mental Status Examination Goal
    Evaluate a person suspected to have neurological or emotional problems
  18. Mental Status Examination
    • assesses appearance, emotions, intelligence, attention, sensory factors, orientation
    • used to diagnose psychosis, brain damage, etc.
  19. Proper Attitude
    warmth, geuineness, acceptance, understaning, etc.
  20. Proper Response
    keep the interction flowing withe proper responses
  21. types of Proper Responses
    • open-ended questions
    • use miniml effort to keep interview going
    • stay thematic
    • verbtim playback
    • paraphrasing
    • summarizing
    • reflection/empathy
  22. types of Improper Responses
    • too much talking
    • topic-hopping
    • judgemental/evaluative statements
    • probing statements
    • hostility
    • false reassurance
  23. Carl Rogers Scale to measure empathy
    • level 1: no connection to what interviewee said
    • level 2: superficial awareness of what was said
    • level 3: interchangeable statement and response
    • levels 4 & 5: provide accurate empathy and goes beyond what was said explicitly
  24. How to get better at interviewing
    • read the empirical research and theory on interviewing
    • get supervision
    • self-evaluation
  25. Errors that reduce interviewer objectivity
    • halo effect
    • general standoutishness
    • cross-cultural differences
  26. Halo Effect
    Form opinion of the interviewee early on and is based for who interview
  27. General Standoutishness
    one interviewee characteritics biases evaluation of other characteristics
  28. Cross-Cultural Differences
    e.g. eye contact discouraged in some non-american cultures
  29. The correlation between interview performance ratings and actual abilites is...
    low and inconsistent
  30. Inter-interview agreement
    • Agreement between 2 or more interviewers
    • range-.20 to .97
    • median .55
  31. Reliability is twice as high for...
    structured compared to unstructured interviews
  32. 3 approaches to evaluate intelligence
    • psychometric
    • information-processing: how we learn and solve problems
    • cognitive: how we adapt to real-world demands
  33. 1904 Binet and Simon
    • selected to design intelligence test
    • identify intellectual defiency
  34. Binet defined intellligece as...
    • to find and maintain a definite direction/purpose
    • to make necessary adaptations to achieve that purpose
    • to engage in self-critisms and self-adjustments to your strategy
  35. Binet's principles of test construction
    • age differentiation: older children know more than younger children
    • mental age: children expected to know specific things at each age
    • general mental ability: total product of various and distinct elements of intelligence; an overall score, no subscores
  36. Spearman
    • Intelligence consists of general mental ability (g) and lots of other factors
    • difference of other factors cancel each other
  37. Factor anaylsis
    in intelligence tests, the first factor is g
  38. gF-gC Theory
    • Describes multiple forms of intelligence
    • crystallized (c): knowledge and understanding we already have e.g. facts, statistics
    • fluid (f): abilities that allow us to reason, learn, think, etc.; e.g. processing of cognitive, visual, audio info
  39. 1905 Binet-Simon Scale
    • defined intelligence and asked to measure it via problem solving
    • 30 items of increasing difficulty
    • lacked an appropriate measuring unit
    • lacked normative data
  40. 1908 Simon-Binet
    • retained age differentiation
    • created age scales; items grouped according to age level, not increasing difficulty
    • only 1 score produced
    • introduced mental age; used 2/3 benchmark
  41. 1916 Standford-Binet (Version I)
    • Developed by Terman at Standford
    • retained
    • age differentiation
    • age scale
    • mental age
    • g
    • changed; increased standardization sample, except they were all white california kids
    • added the intelligence quotient (IQ); crude calculation, has limitations
  42. 1937 Standford-Binet scale (Version II)
    • extended age range down to 2 years old
    • scoring standards/instructions improved; standardization sample larger, more diverse
    • performance intems added; e.g. copy designs, but only 25% of the test
    • equivalent forms designed
    • allows test comparison and examination of psychometric properties
    • found: reliability lower for youth and those with high IQ
    • found: standard deviation vary across age/IQ groups
    • implications: we cant compare scores from different groups
  43. 1960 Standford-Binet (Version III)
    • discriminability analysis to keep items whose score correlated highly with overall test score
    • improved: instructions for scoring/administration, added the deviation IQ-a standard score; M=100, SD=16
    • corrected for differential variability in age/IQ groups; now we could compare scores, in terms of SD's
  44. Model for the 4th and 5th editions
    • Hierarchichal model: g is at the top, crystallized abilities, fluid-analytical abilities, short-term memory
    • Thurstone promotes this multidimensional model argued intelligence is comprised if independent factors; primary mental abilites
  45. 1986 Revisions (Version IV)
    • removed age scales and replaced with point scales; all items with the same content placed together into 15 seperate tests
    • implications: test-takers obtain 15 different scores of various abilities; use these scores to calculate on overall g, calculate a content area score, use just to individual test scores
  46. The 2003 (Version 5)
    • nonverbal and verbal scales equally weighted
    • intergration of point and age scales; point scale maintained on routing test, age scles used for 8 subtests
  47. Basal
    the minimal number of correct responses is obtained, indication items are not to difficult
  48. Ceiling
    the maximum number of incorrect responses is obtained, indicating items are to difficult
  49. Psychometric properties of version 5
    • SD=15, not 16
    • new subtests added;current ones updated
    • taps extremes of intelligence
    • age range 2-85+
    • standardization sample: Nearly 8000, stratified by gender, ethnicity, region, etc.
    • reliability coefficient 7.9 multiple measures
    • evidence for content-, construct-, and criterion- validities found
  50. Wechsler
    • pointed to the role of nonintellective factors of intelligence tests
    • objected to Binet's single score
    • tested intelligence in adults; said intellect could deteriorate with age
    • used point scales instead of age scales; points assigned to each item, content area scores obtained
    • use performancce scales; subjects had to things, tests independent of language, culture and education, comparable units used to express prformance/erbal scores
  51. Verbal Comprehension
    • vocab
    • similarities
    • information
    • comprehenion (WISC)
  52. Perceptual Reasoning
    • block design
    • matrix reasoning
    • visual puzzles
  53. Working Memory
    • arithmetic
    • digit span
    • letter-number sequencing
  54. Proessing Speed Subtests
    • symbol search
    • coding
  55. Vocabulary
    • define words
    • stable over time, not prone to deteriorate
  56. Similarites
    • tests concrete and abstract thinking
    • "in what ways are x and y alike"
  57. Information
    • trivia (sort of)
    • "how many members are there in the US congress?"
  58. Comprehension (WISC)
    • answer abtract questions
    • "why do we lock our doors at night?"
  59. Arithmetic
    • relatively simple math problems, administered orally
    • "a person w/ $28 spends $.50. how much does he have now?"
    • test concentration, motivation, and memory
  60. Digit Span
    repeat digits administered orally to you at a rate of one per second
  61. Letter-Number Sequencing (optional)
    retain and reorder a mixd series of letters aand numbers
  62. Block Design
    • 9 red, white and red/white design
    • test ability to reason, analyze special relations
  63. Matrix Reasoning
    identify a pattern/relationship in the stimuli
  64. Visual Puzzle
    "which of these 3 pieces go togther to make one ongruent puzzle?"
  65. Symbol Search
    • you're shown 2 target geometric figures
    • "is one of those 2 in a set of 5 more?
  66. Coding
    • numbers 1-9 paired with a symbol
    • you translate numbers into symbols, one by one
  67. Scoring
    • score each test by hand
    • enter scores into WAIS software program
    • progrm converts each subtest's raw score to a scaled score
    • ech subtest has a M scaled score=10 and SD=3
    • these subtest scores comprise 4 different index, content area, or composit scores
    • these scores comprise the full scale IQ (FSIQ) and the general ability index (GAI)
    • age-adjusted and reference group norms
  68. Psychometrics of the WAIS-IV
    • standardized on 2450 adults; stratified by gender, race education, geographpic region
    • high split-half test-retest reliabilites
    • SEM used to yield confidence intervals around FSIQ
    • SEM for WAIS-IV=approx. 2.5 ex. 1 sem around fsiq=68% confidence, 2=95%
    • Convergent evidence for validity, scores correlate well with score from tests of similar content.
  69. The Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV)
    measures uintelligence of indivuduals ages 6yr-16yrs, 11 months
Card Set
Psychology 340 Exam 2
Psychological Testing