Day of Celebration 1

  1. Faith and Reason
    Strong Rationalism
    we are justified in affirmed our religious beliefs only if such beliefs are based on objective evidence that no reasonable person can deny

    problem: not everyone is convinced that the truth or falsity of religious beliefs canbe established conclusivement by the evidence
  2. Faith and Reason
    1. Because evidential considerations cannot be conclusively establish religious belief, we are justified in avoiding them

    2. We shouldnt even consider evidence bcause it demeans, minimizes, and detracts from our spiritual commitment

    problem: just because evidence doesn't conclusively settle an issue doesn't mean its not relevant to the issue
  3. Faith and Reason
    Critical Rationalism
    We are justified in afirmed religious beliefs even if they are not based on evidence convincing to all, but only after the relevant evidence to which we have access has been considered
  4. Divine Omnipotence
    Theological Determinism
    God is all controlling, humans are free and responsible for their actions, but all and ony that which God has determined shoud occur does in fact occur. This is the best of all possible world
  5. Divine Omnipotence
    Free Will Theism
    God could be all controlling, however to the extent that God grants us meaningful freedom He has vluntarily given up control over what will occur (self-limitation)

    weak free will theism: God frequently overrides our freedom when it really maters to God
  6. Divine Omnipotence
    Process Theism
    God cannot unilaterally control anything. All entities alwasy reatain some power of self determinination. God is though at every moment attmpeting to persuade all entitites to choose the best available option
  7. Divine Omnipotence
    Can God sin?
    The question is not whether God has the power or strength, but whether sinning is consistent with God's nature.

    Key Question: Do God and humand function in accordance with the same basic moral standard?
  8. Divine Omnipotence
    Moral Continuity Thesis
    God's nature contains moral principles that guide God's behavior

    These are the same moral principles we are to live by
  9. Divine Omnipotence
    Moral Discontinuity Thesis
    God's nature doesn't contain moral principles God must live by

    What God does is right because God does it

    God ahs moral principles for us to live by, but God is under no obligation to live by these moral principles
  10. Divine Omniscience
    Present Knowledge
    God knows all tha has occured and is occuring and can predict but does not know what people will freely do in the future

    problems: limits God, problem with Prophecy
  11. Divine Omniscience
    Simple Foreknowledge
    God know all that has occurred, is occuring, and will actually occur

    • TIMLESS: God knows what from our perspective is past, present, and future. But God is outside of time. For God, all exists in the eternal now
    • problem: then how can God interact inside of time??
  12. Divine Omniscience
    Middle Knowledge
    In addition to knowing all that has happening, is happening, and will actually happen. God also knows exactly what would happen given every possible situation
  13. Divine Omniscience
    Problem and Solution
    God cannot know anything that is false, therefore what He knows must happen. This means that humans have no freedom because they must do whatever God knows.

    • Solutions
    • TD- God control what you do, but you're still free
    • PK- God doesn't actually know what we will freely do in the future
    • Timeless: God doesn't foreknow anything because He sees it all at once
    • SFK/MK- it doesn't mean that you can't do it, just that you don't and God just happens to know you won't
  14. Divine Immutibility
    Does God experience emotional change?
    Historical Orthodox Response
    To be effected emotionally is to change essentially, but God cannot change essentially therefore God cannot have emotional experiences

    (essential characteristics make up a person and who they are while relational characteristics describe the relationship between the person and other entities)
  15. Divine Immutibility
    Does God experience emotional change?
    Contemporary Response
    God is effected emotionall but this makes God a more admirable being because appropriate emotional dependence is a desirable character trait
  16. Divine Goodness
    Problem of Evil
    • Evil: human pain and suffering
    • 2 kinds: moral (the result of human decision making) and natural (all the rest)

    • Formal problem:
    • 1. God is all powerful, all knowing, and perfectly good
    • 2. Therefore any divine creation will be perfect
    • 3. Unnecessary is an imperfection
    • 4. Unnecessary evil does exist
    • 5. If God exists, He cannot be all powerful, all knowing, and perfectly good
  17. Divine Goodness
    Responses to the problem of evil (theodocies)
    • Theological Determinist: There is no unnecessary evil because it is part of God's plan and the best possible world
    • --problems: simply implausable to think all evil is necessary, if this is true then can God be considered fair and just?

    • Free Will Theism: A world with freedom makes unnecessary evil possible in the most perfect type of world
    • --problems: this limits God's control too greatly, doesn't explain natural evil, a perfect God who foreknew what would have happened would not have created the world, God would not destroy meaningful freedom is he intervened more frequently

    • Process Theism
    • It is not God's fault that evil exists because He cannot intervene
  18. Divine Goodness
    Can God be the basis on moral principles?
    We consider God good in one of two ways, both with present a problem

    Synthetic (evidential)- we must know what "good" means in order to see if the evidence shows goodness. We make the definition of "good" by our own standards, meaning we judge God by our standard not His

    Analytic- it must be shown that the object possesses these qualities outside of one's own mind, however we must define "good" first. Without doing this, we cannot assign "good" to God

    • Solutions:
    • We don't judge by our own standards, good is what God does
    • or
    • God has implanted moral standards within us therefore we can admit that we judge God yet maintain that God is the ultimate standard of morality
Card Set
Day of Celebration 1
Philosophy and religion study guide for day of celebration (Exam) 1