Chapter 17 Vocab

  1. process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins (or in some cases, RNA)
    gene expression
  2. inability to make a particular enzymes
    inborn errors of metabolism
  3. moist support mixed with only inorganic salts, glucose, and the vitamin biotin
    agar/ MM
  4. a premise stating that the function of a gene is to dictate the production of a specific enzyme
    one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
  5. synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
  6. synthesisi of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule; there is a change of language from nucleotides to amino acids
  7. type of RNA synthesized using a DNA template that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome
  8. complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains
  9. where translation occurs
  10. where transcription occurs
  11. the transcription of a protein-coding eukaryotic gene results in __
  12. initial RNA transcript
    primary transcript (pre-mRNA)
  13. DNA-> RNA-> protein
    central dogma
  14. smallest units of uniform length that can code for all the amino acids
    triplets of nucleotide bases
  15. the genetic instructions for a polypeptide chain are written in the DNA as a series of nonoverlapping, three nucleotide words; set of three nucleotide long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
    triplet code
  16. strand providing the pattern for the sequence of nucleotides in a n RNA transcript
    template strand
  17. pattern
  18. mRNA base triplets; three nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code
  19. three codons that do not designate amino acids are called ___
    • sstop codons or termination signals
  20. start codon adn amino acid
    • methionine
    • AUG
  21. on an mRNA, the triplet grouping of ribonucleotides by the translation machinery during polypeptide synthesis
    reading frame
  22. an enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription
    pries the two DNA strands apart
    do not need a primer
    RNA polymerase
  23. a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA pol, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place
  24. in bacteria, a sequence of of nucleotides in DNA that mark the end of a gene and signal RNA pol to release the newly made RNA molecules and detach from the DNA
  25. direction of transcription
  26. other direction
  27. a region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule
    transcription unit
  28. polymerase used for RNA synthesis in euk.
    RNA pol II
  29. nucleotide where RNA synthesis actually begins
    transcription start point
  30. a regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes; mediates the binding of RNA pol and the initiation of transcirption
    transcription factors
  31. the completred assembly of transcription factos and RNA pol bound to a promoter
    transcription initiation complex
  32. a DNA sequence in euk. promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex; transcription factor binds to it, allowing the RNA pol to bind
    TATA box
  33. a DNA sequence that causes the mRNA to stop being transcribed and peel away from the DNA
    • polyadenylation signal sequence
    • polyadenylation signal (AAUAAA)
  34. modification of RNA transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends
    RNA processing
  35. a modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the nucleotide at the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule after transcription of the first 20-40 mucleotides
    5' cap
  36. a sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added on to the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule
  37. parts of mRNA that will not be trnaslated into proteins, but have other functions like ribosome binding
  38. after synthesis of a euk. primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions (introns) of the transcript that will not be included in the mRNA
    RNA splicing
  39. a noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed fromt he transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed
  40. a sequence within a proimary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed; will be expresesed by being translated into amino acid sequences
  41. a large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that spilices RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons
  42. particles that recognize the splice sets that are located in the cell nucleus and are composed of RNA and protein molecules
  43. RNA in a snRNP taht join with additional proteins to form an even largeer assembly called a spliceosome (150 nucleotides long)
  44. molecule that interacts with certain sites along an intron, releasing it and joining together two exons that flanked the intron
  45. RNA molecules that function as enzymes
  46. a type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
    alternative RNA splicing
  47. independently folding part of a protein; discrete structural and functional region on a protein
  48. an RNA moleucle that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up speific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA; transfers amino acids from the cytoplasmic pool of amino acids to the ribosomes
  49. a nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on the mRNA molecuel
  50. the codon UUU codes for which amino acid?
  51. an enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA
  52. How many tRNAs are there?
  53. flexibility in the base-pairing rules in which the nucleotide at the 5' end of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon
  54. this explains why the synonymous codons for a given amino acid can differ in their third base, but not in their other bases
  55. most abundant type of RNA; together with protiens creates ribosomes
  56. Where is rRNA made?
  57. A functional ribosome is formed only when attached to an __.
    mRNA molecule
  58. How many binding sies does each ribosome have for mRNA? tRNA?
    • 1
    • 3
  59. union of mRNA, tRNA, and a small and large ribosomal subunit
    translation initiation complex
  60. one of a ribosomes binding sites for tRNA during translation; holds the tRNA carrying hte growing polypeptide chain
    P (peptidyl site)
  61. one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation; holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain
    A (aminoacyl tRNA site)
  62. one of a ribosmes three binding sites for tRNA; place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome
    E 9exit) site
  63. proteins called __ arte required to bring all the components together of the translation initiation complex
    initiation factors
  64. Each addition to the polypeptide chain requires the participation of several proteins called __ and occurs in a three step cycle.
    What are the steps
    • elongation factors
    • codon recognition
    • peptide bond formation
    • translocation
  65. Stop codons
    • UAG
    • UGA
    • UAA
  66. a protein that binds directly to the stop codon in the A site, causing the addition of a water molecule instead of an amino acid to the polypeptide chain, hydrolyzing the bond between teh completed polypeptide and the tRNA in the P site, releasing teh polypeptide through the exit tunnel of the ribosome's large subunit.
    release factor
  67. a group of several ribosomes attached to, and translating, the same mRNA molecule
  68. A __ determines primary structure, which determines shape
  69. additional steps that may be required before the protein can begin doing its particular job; involves the modification by addition of sugars, lipids, phosphate groups, etc. and the removal of one or more amino acids by enzymes
    post-translational modifications
  70. ribosomes that make proteins that stay int he cytosol and funciton there
  71. ribosomes that make proteins of the endomembrane system as well as proteinss secreted from the cell
  72. a sequence of about 20 amino acids at or near the leading (amino) end of a polypeptide that targets it to the ER or other organelles in a eukaryotic cell
    signal peptide
  73. A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the ER by binding to a receptor protein on the ER
    signal recognition particle (SRP)
  74. The SRP is part of a __.
    multiprotein translocation complex
  75. a change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
    point mutation
  76. a change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA, ultimately creating genetic diversity; can occur in the DNA or RNA of viruses as well
  77. a base-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
    missense mutation
  78. a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
    nonsense mutation
  79. a mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons
    frameshift mutation
  80. a mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs of a gene
  81. a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
  82. a mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
  83. a type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides
    base-pair substitution
  84. if a mutation has an adverse effect ont he phenotype of an organism, the mutatnt condition is referred to as __
    • genetic disorder
    • hereditary disease
  85. point mutations are divided into:
    • base pair:
    • -substitutions
    • -insertions and deletions
  86. mutation in which the substitution has no effect on the encoded protein because of the redundancy of the genetic code
    silent mutation
  87. a physical mutagen
    mutagenic radiation
  88. chemicals that are similar to normal DNA bases but that pair incorrectly during DNA replication
    base analogs
  89. mutations that arise when an incorrect base is added to a growing chain during replication; that base will be mismatched with the base on the other strand; if not corrected, it will be used as a template in the next round, resulting in a mutaiton
    spontaneous mutations
  90. substitution mutations are usually __ mutations.
  91. RNA polymerases in archaea are similar to __
  92. Archaea use transcription factors, which is similar to __
  93. transcription in archae is terminated similar to
  94. archaeal ribosomes in size are similar to
  95. archaeal ribosomes in chemical inhibitor sensibility is similar to
  96. initiation of translation in archaea is similar to
  97. the archaeal process of gene expression (transc. and trans.) is similar to
  98. a region of DNA that can be expressed to produce a final functional product that is either a polypeptide or an RNA molecule
Card Set
Chapter 17 Vocab
AP Bio