A membrane protein that allows movement in 2 directions is called a____.
Function of proteins in the membrane
provide a passage way for substances through membrane
3 main compounds of a cell membrane.
- 1. lipids
- 2. proteins
- 3. carbs
Provides energy for the cell
series of tunnels for transport
What packages materials for export out of the cell?
What contains packaged material made by the cell?
What contains digestive enzymes that kill invaders?
Allows on certain materials in or out of the cell
What is the green pigment for photosynthesis?
What do ribosomes do?
assembles proteins need by the cell
The control center of the cell that contains genetic information is known as:
The movement of particles from high to low concentration is:
The process of water moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is:
Hypertonic solution will cause a cell to _______.
Isotonic solution causes a cell to ________.
stay the same
Organisms that make thier own food are known as:
What is the site of photosynthesis?
The chemical compound for glucose is?
What process does not require oxygen?
The process that requires oxygen is?
What is ADP?
What is the energy storing molecule?
What is the anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming two molecules of pyravic acid?
What is energy
the ability to work
The three processes of cellular respiration are:
- 1. glycosis (no oxygen – in cytoplasm 2 ATP produced)
- 2. Kreb's cycle (oxygen needed – in mitochondria 2 ATP produced)
- 3. electrons (oxygen needed – in mitochondria 34 ATP produced)
The total ATP per 1 glucose is?
The general equation for photosynthesis is:
6CO2+6H2Ov -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
When and why does our body use lactic acid fermentation?
In the absence of O2
Does Simple Diffussion require energy?
Plasma Membrane is made of a Phospholipid_____.
Cell Membrane is also called a____.
The phospholipids have a hydrophilic___ and 2 Hydropholoic _____,
- Hydropilic Head
- Hydropolic Tail
- Iso- =amount of water coming in and out of cell
- Hyper- To much water leaving cell
- Hypo- To much water coming in a cell
What type of sun wavelengths do plants perfer?
3 major events in photo Synthesis
- 1. Absorbtion of light
- 2. Conversition of light energy into chemical energy.
- 3. Storage of potential energy in the form of carbs.
The majority of cell respiration occurs in the
General Equation for Cell Respiration
C6H12O6 + O2-->6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
What is this called?
The two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria
•This stage requires oxygen to further break down the 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. This is called aerobic respiration.
•These 3-carbon pyruvate molecules are processed further and produce new molecules that are electron carriers.
•These electron carrier molecules are called NADH and FADH (the H - hydrogen carries the electrons needed for the next stage)
Begins with glucose entering the cell.
•Glucose is a 6-carbon molecule
•During glycolysis, glucose is broken in half to form two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules.
•This REQUIRES two ATP to start the process but then 4 ATP are produced. So there is a NET production of 2 ATP.
•This stage does NOT require any oxygen and occurs in the cytoplasm.
•The two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules then enter the mitochondria for the second stage – Kreb’s cycle
What happens if there is NO OXYGEN for the Kreb’s Cycle?
Instead of producing ATP, another product is formed.
The process is called fermentation–
In animal cells, lactic acid is made (this is the “burn” you feel when you overwork your muscles)–
In yeast cells, alcohol fermentation occurs (this is the process that makes ethanol or grain alcohol)
What is Series of reactions by which plants, algae and some bacteria use light energy from the sun to synthesize large, energy-rich molecules?
What are the three types of sun wavelengths>
- 1. Ultraviolet
- 2. Visible
- 3. Infrared
What do plants do with the colored wavelenghts
absorb red and blue and reflect green
Chlorophyll uses energy of sun excite electrons and to break down water into electrons
•Oxygen is given off as a by-product of the breakdown of water
•The H+ from the breakdown of water are used to produce 2ATP and 1NADPH for the 2ndphase of photosynthesis
Light reaction in Photosynthesis
•The Dark Reaction uses the ATP and NADPH from the light reaction and CO2 to create glucose
•The CO2 enters the leaf through the stomata and occurs in the stroma
•The CO2combines with a 5-C sugar to make a 6-C sugar that quickly splits into two 3-C sugars (Uses the ATP and NADPH)
•The 3-C sugar can then be used to make glucose, starch, sucrose, lipids, proteins and other molecules the plant may need to function
Carbon Fixation (The Dark Reaction)
4 classes of Biological Macromolecules
- •nucleic acids
3 parts of Nucleic Acids
- •phosphate group
- •sugar group
- •nitrogen base
5 bases of Nucleic Acids
- •Adenine (A)
- •Guanine (G)
- •Cytosine (C)
- •Thymine (T)
Vesicles form inside the cell, move outward, fuse with the cell membrane, and expel their contents
DIfference between Secretion and excretion
- Secretion – release of product useful to cell
- Excretion – release of waste product
7 Characteristics of Living Things
- 1) Living things are highly ordered.
- 2) Living things are organized into units called cells.
- 3) Living things use energy from their environment
- 4) Living organisms respond to stimuli
- 5) Living things develop.
- 6) Living things reproduce themselves
- 7) Living things contain genetic information
Describe the four basic shapes of bacterial cells
- Bacillus (pl. bacilli):•Rod-shapedCoccus(pl. cocci):•Sphere-shapedSpirillium: spiral shapedSpirochetes: Spiral shaped with flagella•Very Motile