Micro 205

  1. Lactose Fermentation
    Media: Lactose Broth

    Original Color: Orange

    Biochemical Pathway: Lactic acid

    Results: Turns Yellow

    Reagent: None
  2. Methyle Red Test
    Media: MVRP Borth

    Original color: Straw

    Biochemical pathway: Glucose Fermentation into acid

    Results: Turns Bright red

    Reagent: Methyl red
  3. Voges-Proskauer Test
    Media: MVRP Broth

    Original color: Straw

    Biochemical pathway:Glucose fermentation into alchohol Butodiol

    + Results: Turns Pink

    Reagent: Alpha- naphthol
  4. Nitrate Reduction Test
    • Media: Nitrate Broth w/ Durham tube
    • Original color:Straw

    Biochemical pathway:

    + Results:Changes color to red with gas bubbles

    Reagent: Nitrate solution A and B
  5. Catalase Test
    • Media: None
    • Original color: Clear
    • Biochemical pathway:Hydrogen Peroxide

    + Results: Bubbling

    Reagent: 3% H2O2
  6. Starch Hydrolysis
    Media: Agar Slant

    Original color: Straw

    Biochemical pathway: Starch Hydrolysis

    + Results: Dark Blue and a halo

    Reagent: Grams Iodine
  7. Indole Test
    Media: Agar Slant

    Original color: Straw

    Biochemical pathway: Tryptofan Hydrolysis

    + Results: Turns Pink

    Reagent: Kovac's reagent
  8. Urea Hydrolysis Test
    Media: Urea Broth

    Original color: Orange

    Biochemical pathway: Urea Hydrolysis

    + Results: Turns Cherry Pink

    Reagent: PH
  9. Gelatin Liquification
    Media: Nitrogen Gelatin

    • Original color: Straw
    • Biochemical pathway: Gelatic hydrolysis
    • + Results: Liquid

    Reagent: none
  10. Salt Tolerance test
    Media: NaCl Broth

    Original color: Purple

    Biochemical pathway:

    + Results: Turbibidity ( cloudy)

    Reagent: none
  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Production and Motility Test
    Media: SIMS Agar

    Original color: Straw

    Biochemical pathway:

    + Results: Black and cloudy

    Reagent: none
  12. Citrate Utilization Test
    Media: Citrate Agar

    Original color: Green blue

    Biochemical pathway:

    + Results: Perussian Blue

    Reagent: none
  13. Chromosome
    A molecule of DNA associated with protein.
  14. Replication
    Semiconservative- relication of DNA synthesis a new strand od DNA from a Teplate strand

    • Enzymes- helicase, DNA polymerase, ect.
    • synthesis occurs in 5 to 3 directions
  15. Gene
    • 3 Categories
    • Encode for RNA
  16. tRNA
    Copy of specific regions of DNA

    • Complimentary sequences from hairpin loops
    • - Amino acid attachment site
    • - Anticodon

    Participates in ranslation (protein synthesis)
  17. Codon
    Comes from mRNA

    Triplet code that specifies a given amino acid

    • Multiple codes for one amino acid
    • 20 amino acids
    • start codon
    • stop codon
  18. Conjugation
    Transfer of plasmid DNA from F+ (F factor) cell to a F- cell

    An F+ bacterium possesses a PILUS

    PILUS attaches to a recipient cell and create pore for th transfer DNA

    High frequency recombination (Hfr) Donars contain the F fator in chromosomes
  19. Nucleotide
    molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA.

    In addition, nucleotides play central roles in metabolism.

    In that capacity, they serve as sources of chemical energy, participate in cellular signaling, and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reaction
  20. Ribosome
    are the components of cells that make proteins from all amino acids.

    One of the central tenets of biology, often referred to as the "central dogma," is that DNA is used to make RNA, which, in turn, is used to make protein.

    • The DNA sequence in genes is copied into a messenger RNA (mRNA).
    • Ribosomes then read the information in this RNA and use it to create proteins.

    This process is known as translation; i.e., the ribosome "translates" the genetic information from RNA into proteins.

    Ribosomes do this by binding to an mRNA and using it as a template for the correct sequence of amino acids in a particular protein.
  21. Transduction
    Bacteriophages infect host cells

    • sevre as the carrier of DNA from donor cell to recipient cel
    • -Generalized
    • -Specialized
  22. mRNA

    • Copy of structural gene or genes of DNA
    • - Can encode for multiple proteins on one message

    Thymidine is replaced by uracil

    The message contains a codon (three bases)
  23. Transcription
    • RNA
    • Transcription
    • Message RNA (mRNA)
    • Transfer RNA (rTNA)
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  24. Transformation
    Nonspecific acceptance of free DNA by the cell (ex. DNA fragments, plasmids)

    DNA can be inserted into the chromosomes

    Competent cells readily accept DNA
  25. Translation
    Ribosomes bind mRNA near the start codon (ex. AUG)

    tRNA anticodon with attached amino acid binds to the start codon

    Ribosomes move to the next codon, allowing a new tRNA to bind and add another amino acid

    Series of amino acids from peptide bonds

    Stop codon terminates translation
  26. Lactose Operon

    is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and some other enteric bacteria.

    It consists of three adjacent structural genes, lacZ, lacY and lacA.

    The lac operon is regulated by several factors including the availability of glucose and of lactose

    . Gene regulation of the lac operon was the first complex genetic regulatory mechanism to be elucidated and is one of the foremost examples of prokaryotic gene regulation.
  27. Repressible operon
    -Amino acids , Nucleotides

    represser shuts down the gene
  28. Mutation
    • Changes made to DNA
    • Spontaneous- Random change

    Induced- chemical, radiation (comes from the outside)

    Piont - change a single base

    Nonsense- Change a normal codon to a stop codon

    Back- mutation- mutation is reversed

    Frameshift- Reading frame of the mRNA changes
  29. Growth Factor
    essential organic nutrients (supplied from the outside)

    Not synthesized by the organism, and must be supplemented

    Ex. Amino Acids,Vitanims and fatty acids
  30. Chemoheterotrophic
    Derives both carbon and energy from organic compounds

    Saprobic - decomposers of plant litter, animal matter, and deadmicrobes

    Parasitic- live in or on the body of a host
  31. Photoautotroph
    derives their energy from sunlight

    transform light into chemical energy from sunlight

    Primary producers of organic matter for heterotrophs

    • Primary producers of oxygen
    • (ex. Algae, plants, and some bacteria)
  32. Chemoautotrophs
    2 types

    Chemoorganic autotroph-derives there energy from orgaic compounds and their cardon sourse from inorganic compounds.

    Lithoautotrophs - Neither sunlight nor organics used, rather it relies totally on inorganis
  33. Psychrophile
    Temperature- for optimal growth and metabolism

    Psychrophile - 0-15 c
  34. Mesophile
    Optimal growth temperature

    20 to 14 c

    Most organisms
  35. Thermophile
    optimal temp.

    45 to 80 c
  36. Obligate Anaerobe
    Category of Bacteria

    Requires oxygen for metabolism

    Posses enzymes that can neutralize the toxic oxygen metabolites

    EX. Superoxide dismutase and Catalase

    Most Fungi, protazoa, and some bacteria
  37. Facultative anaerobe
    Biggest group

    does not require oxygen for metabolism, but can grow in its presense

    • Durning minus oxygen states, anaerobic resperation or fermentation occurs
    • Posses superoxide dismutase and catalase

    EX. Gram negative pathogens
  38. Obligate Anaerobe
    CANNOT USE OXYGEN for metabolism

    Do not possess superoxide dismutase and Catalase

    The presence of oxygen is toxic to the cell
  39. Binary Fission
    The division of a bacterial cells

    Parental cell enlarges and duplicates its DNA

    Septum formation divides the cell into two separate chambers

    Complete division results in two identical cells
  40. Growth factors
    Essential organic nutrients ( supplied from the outside)

    Not synthesized by the organism, and must be supplemented

    EX. Amino acids, vitamins, esential fatty acids
  41. Generation Time
    The time required for a complete division cycle (doubling)

    Lenghth of the generation time is a measure of the growth rate

    Exponentials are used to define the numbers of bacteria after the growth
  42. Growth curve
    1) Lag Phase

    2) log phase

    3) Stationary Phase

    4) Death Phase
  43. 1) Lag Phase
    Cells are adjusting, enlarging, and synthesizing critical proteins and metabolites

    Not doubling at their maximum growth rate
  44. 2) Log Phase
    Maximum exponential growth rate of cell division

    Adequate nutrients

    Favorable enviroment
  45. 3) Stationary Phase
    Survival Mode-- depletion in nutrients, released waste can inhibit growth

    When the number of cells that stop dividing equal the number of cells that continue to divide
  46. 4) Death Phase
    A majority of cells begin to die exponentially due to lack of nutrients

    A chemostat will provinde a continuous supply of nutreints, thereby the death phase is never achieved
  47. Turbidity
  48. Metabolism
    is the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain life.

    These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.
  49. Catabolism
    enzymes are involved in the breakdown of complex organic molecules in order to extract energy and form simpler end products.
  50. Anabolism
    Enzymes are involved in the use of energy from catabolism in order to synthesize macromlecules and cell structures from precursors (simple products)
  51. Glycolysis
    Oxidation of glucose to 2 pyruvate(pyruvic acid) - net yield of 2 ATP
  52. Trecarboxylic acid (TCA)
    Each pyruvic acid is processed to enter the TCA cycle (2complete cycles)

    Carbon dioxide is generated

    Coenzymes NAD and FAD are reduced

    Net yeild of 2 ATPs
  53. Electron Transport (ETS)
    NADH and FADH2 donate electrons electrons to the electron carriers

    Membrane bound carriers transfer electrons Water is genertated

    Approximately 34 ATPs generated

    This occurs in the mitochondria of a eukaryotic cell

    Occurs on the Cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotic cells
  54. Fermentation anaerobes
    Ferment in the absence of oxygen

    Respiration in the presence of oxygen

    EX. E coli

    2 ATP molecules
  55. Strict fermentation
    No Resperation

    EX. Yeast

    2 ATP molecules
  56. Pasteurization
    Reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens

    63 c for 30 min.
  57. Autoclaving
    • Steam under pressure
    • 121c
    • 15 psi
    • 15 min.
  58. Sterilization
    Removal of all microbial life
  59. Disinfection
    Removal of Pathogens from nonliving materials
  60. Actions od microbial control agents
    • Alternation of membrane permeability
    • Damage to proteins
    • Damage to nucleic acids ( Go after their DNA)
Card Set
Micro 205
Micro Exam 4