B230 exam 2

  1. what is the infants first and most basic task, and what does it include?
    survival; breathing, sucking, eating, digesting, elimination, sleeping
  2. oral stage of development
    the mouth as the most important and center of pleasure in infants
  3. 3 mechanisms of stimulation in infants
    • 1. favors progressive connection bw nerve cells
    • 2. increases vascularization in brain
    • 3. increase myelination, related to the rate of dev. of many functions
  4. at what month doe the infant listen actively to sounds, lifts head almost 45degrees when prone, follows moving objects w/ eyes, recognizes familar faces, turns from side to back
    two months
  5. at wht month does an infant start to stare at own hand and visually inspects objects, carries hand or object to mouth at will, turns eyes to objects placed in vision field, laughs aloud
    3 months
  6. at wht month does an infant's head lag when pulled to sitting position, lifts head momentarily when prone, displays moro, sucking, and rooting reflexes?
    1 month
  7. what month do infants begin drooling w/out swallowing, holds head steady in sitting position, begins eye-hand coordination, chews and bites, reaches out to ppl, squeals, grasp w/ two hands?
    4 months
  8. what month? plays w/ toes, sits w/ slight support, makes cooing noises, rolls from back to stomach or vice versa, looks for objects that have fallen, is able to descriminate strangers from family
    5 months
  9. what month? bears wt when held in standing position, sits and leans forwards on both hands, fixates on one very small object, bangs objects together
    7 months
  10. what month? able to lift cup by handle, plays peek a boo, begins to hitch in locomotion, has definite likes and dislikes
    6 months
  11. what month? feeds self, sits well alone, dislikes dressing and diaper changes, releases objects at will, responds to "no", pulls toy toward self, shows nervousness with strangers
    8 months
  12. what month? creeps and crawls, explores obj by sucking, chewing, and biting it, drinks from cup w/ assistance, repeats facial expression of adults, responds to simple verbal requests
    9 months
  13. what month? sits by falling down, understands bye bye, pays attention to own name, crawls and cruises well, looks at and follows pictures in books
    10 months
  14. what month? loses babinski sign, walks with help, has equal circumference head and chest, develops evident hand dominance
    12 months
  15. what month? walks up stairs w/ help, turns pages of books, indicates wet pants, places objects in holes or slots,
    18 months
  16. what month? attempts to walk without assistance, begins to hold spoon, holds crayon to mark on paper
    11 months
  17. what month? creeps up stairs, uses dada and mama labels for correct parents, temper tantrums, walks w/out help, drinks from cup well but rotates spoon
    15 months
  18. according to Erikson, what's the central developmental task during infancy?
    trust vs. mistrust
  19. define the sensorimotor period, by piaget
    up to 18 months, the time during which infants develop the coordination to master activities that allow them to interact with the environment
  20. What is the DDST, and it's purpose?
    The Denver Developmental Screening Test; screens for dev. probs in children from birth-6yrs.
  21. what is an abnormality of structure, function, or matabolism as a result of a genetic or environmental influence on the fetus?
    a birth defect
  22. define weaning?
    a gradual, caring process that introduces the infant to a cup, which replaces the bottle or breast. (5-6 months)
  23. Name a few breast feeding positions
    football, lying down, cradling, across the lap
  24. what food do you introduce at 6-8 months?
    protein foods ( cheese, meat, fish, chicken, and yogurt)
  25. what aspects do you review in intial interviews in prevention of birth defects?
    maternal age, ethnic background,FH, Reproductive history, maternal disease
  26. define and describe SIDS
    Sudden infant death syndrome is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than 1 yr that remains unexplained after review of the clinical history, exam of the scene of death, and postmortem exam. 3rd leading cause of infant death in the US and Canada. cause is unknown
  27. When does salivation begin?
    approx 3 months, but taste is present at birth
  28. define paternal engrossment
    describe the behavior pattern of fathers when they interact w/ their infants.
  29. what are the 5 characteristics of paternal engrossment?
    visual awareness of infant, tactive awareness (desire to hold), awareness of distinct characteristics(features tht resemble dad), perceive infact as perfect, dev strong feeling of attraction toward infant, feel of deep satisfaction
  30. what is one of the most common health problems in children?
    ear infections
  31. explain 3 phases in the reaction to seperation
    • 1.protest-cries loudly for mom, ignores others
    • 2. Despair-stops crying, becomes less active, withdraws, becomes apathetic
    • 3. withdrawal-takes interests in surroundings, rejects mom bc she fails to meet his/her needs
  32. What is the most common unitentional injury after 4 months of age?
  33. what should you do when choking occurs in infants
    place infanct across the adult's knee and deliever 5 back blows followed by 5 chect thrusts repeatedly until object is expelled or infant becomes unresponsive
  34. define active immunization
    all or part of the disease-causing microorganism is injected into the body to make it react defensively
  35. injecting blood from an actively immunized person or animal is...
    passive immunization
  36. what are the nurses role in the dev of health care policies?
    ID resources for the community to meet its specific need, planning for resources not available to the community, coordinating the resources available to the community to promote better use of them
  37. Explain weight gain in infants up to 1 yrs old
    • first 2 weeks- may lose but should be back to birth weight
    • first 6 mnths- doubles wt
    • first year-triples wt
  38. how many inches do infants gain?
    1 each/month
  39. What month?
    moro (startle)
    palmer grasp
    tonic neck
    stepphing in place
    1 month
  40. explain steps of skull bone closure
    • open anterior (until 18 mnts)
    • posterior (closes @birth or 2 months)
    • fontaneles, sutures (open til 2-3 yrs)
    • anterior fontanels (close 18-24 mnths)
  41. When do you stop doing OFC test?
    with each visit until fontanels close
  42. when does active immunity kick in?
    starts at 3 months with results by 6 months
  43. cognitive development (Piaget) for infants
    • sensorimotor
    • primary circular reactions 1-4 months
    • Secondary 4-12 months
    • Tertiary 12-24 months
  44. What month?
    large muscle coordination, ability to hear, use sounds and words, eye/hand coordination, manipulation of small objects
  45. equal movements, lifts head to 45 degrees, responds to bells, coos,social smile
    2 months
  46. sleeps 12-16 hours
  47. eats every 3-4 hours, 6-8 feedings a day
    2 months
  48. no longer has head lag when pulled upright, rolls from to back, bears partial weight when help upright
    4 months
  49. turns to rattling sound, squeals, laughs
    4 months
  50. fine motor @ 4 months
    puts hands together, grasps rattle
  51. how does a 4 month old sleep
    at least 6-hrs , most sleep throughout the night... 14-16 hrs a day
  52. gross motor, fine motor, language of 6 month
    • reaches out to be picked up,sits unsteady, begins stranger anxiety @ 7 months, peaks at 8 months
    • starts to feel self
  53. what are the steps when starting solid foods?
    • give new ones every 3 days to ID any allergies, start w/veggies then fruit then meat
    • no honey, egg whites, or peanuts
  54. respond to own name, crawls, creeps, uses sippy cups regularly
    9 months
  55. cruises well,, walks with support, stands alone, some take first steps
    12 mnths
  56. 7-20 words, use 2 word combo, temper tantrums, disrupts environment, egocentrism, ritualism, uses jargon, names one body part, no logical thought
    18 months
  57. 1st molar eruption
    • 10-16 months
    • 20-30 months for 2nd molars
  58. bowel/bladder schedule
    • daytime bowel: 15-24 mnts
    • daytime bladder: 2-3 yrs
    • nighttime bladder: 3-5 yrs
  59. 20 teeth by..
    2.5 yrs
  60. internal tibial torsion
    abnormal bowing ; supine sleeping reccom.
  61. external tibial torsion
    abnormal bowing develops after birth ..resolves on own. sleepin in supine position recc
  62. Piaget for 24 months
    sensorimotor IV: invents new means through mental combos, object permanence awareness, egocentrism behavior continues
  63. erikson for 24 months
    • autonomy vs. shame and doubt continues
    • negativism
    • ritualism
    • parallel play
  64. 5-6 lbs/year
    2 inches/year
    • 6-12 yrs
    • all permenant teeth by 12
  65. when does nervous system mature
    7 or 8 yrs
  66. girls puberty
    • ht. growth bw 11-15
    • breast buds 9-11 yrs
    • menses follows breast buds by 2 yrs
    • 5 tanner stages based on breast growth and pubic hair growth
  67. boys puberty
    • ht. growth 12-15
    • onset of puberty defined by scrotal enlargment and penis lengthening
    • 5 tanner stages based on sz of scrotum, penis and growth of pubic hair
  68. 4000 words by ...
    12 yrs
  69. syntax means
    semantics means
    • grammer
    • meaning
  70. IQ testing for 6-12 yrs
    avg 90-110
  71. erikson for 6-12 yrs
    • industy vs. inferiority:school is their work
    • industry: eagerness to develop skills and participate in socially useful work
  72. piaget for 6-12 yrs
    concrete operations: inductive reasoning, begin logic, works taken literally..affects self esteem
  73. erikson
  74. piaget
  75. calories for 6-12 yrs
    • 2,000-2,400 calories/day
    • obesity caused by unstructured meals, lack of knowledge, genetics, lack of exercise
  76. enuresis
    • involuntary urination at age (beyong 4 yrs) when control should be present
    • primary-never achieved control
    • secondary-w/ pds of dryness
    • nocturnal-bedwetting @ night atleast once/month
    • diurnal-wetting during the day
  77. ecopresis
    voluntary or involuntary passing of stool in underpants after age 4
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B230 exam 2
study cards for exam 2