1. resulting from the incontrolled growth of cells, which causes malignant cellular functions
  2. what is 2nd leadng cause of death in the us
  3. any abnormal growth of new tissue, can be found in any body tissue
  4. not progressive, favorable for recovery
  5. becoming progressively worse and often resulting in death
  6. how do cancer cells grow?
    in a rapid and they grow for no useful purpose and gow in the healthy tissue
  7. what do cancer cells look like?
    irregular- with fingerlike proections
  8. how can cancer cells spread
    they multiply quick and spread via bloodstream and lymph system
  9. cancers occuring in infection fighting organs, such as lymphatic tissue
  10. cancers occuring in blood forming organs such as spleen and in bone marrow
  11. cancero ccuring in connective tissue, such as bone
  12. cancers occuring in epithelial tissue, such as skin
  13. abestos-lung, coal tar, creasote, arsenic or radium, skin and 2nd hand smoke
  14. tobacco, sun exposure, heavy alcohol consumptions, esophageal and fatty diets
  15. causes of breast cancer
    family history, high fat diet, obesity, alcohol consumptin, postmenopausal estrogen and progestin, first child after 30
  16. causes of cervical cancer?
    multiple sex partners, sex at early age, smoking and HPV exposure
  17. causes of colorectal cancer?
    family history, low fiber diet,history of rectal polyps
  18. causes of esophageal cancer
    heavy alcohol and smoking consumption
  19. causes of lung cancer?
    smoking, asbestos, arsenic, and radon exposure, 2nd hand smoke and tuberculosis
  20. causes of skin cancer?
    exposure to uv ray, fair complexion, work with coal, tar, pitch or creosote and multiple or atypical moles
  21. causes of stomach cancer?
    family history and diet heavy in smoked, pickled or salted foods
  22. causes of testicular cancer?
    undescended testicles, consumption of hormones by mother in pregnancy
  23. causes of prostate cancer?
    increasing age, family history, diet high in animal fat
  24. how often should ages 20-39 get cancer checkups
    every 3 years
  25. how often do ages 40 and over get cancer checkups?
  26. TNM classification
    • t=anatomical size of primary tumor
    • n=extent of lymph node involvement
    • m=presence of absence of metastasis
  27. the process where normal body cells have individual characteristics that allow them to perform different body functions
  28. tumor cells retain many of the identifiable tissue characteristics of the origional cell ex grade 1
    well differentiated
  29. tumor cells have little similarity to the tissue of orgin, ex grade 5
  30. stage 1 cancer?
    < 2cm, mobile, superficial and confined to organ of orgin, no lymph and no mets
  31. stage 2 cancer?
    tumor 2-5 cm, not as mobile extends into adjacent tissue, lymph >2-3 cm and firm, no mets
  32. stage 3A cancer?
    tumor >5cm, not mobile, no lymph, no mets
  33. stage 3B cancer?
    <2 or >5 mobile or not, localized or extended, and lymph is >2-3 cm and firmer and no mets
  34. stage 4A?
    tumor>10 cm, extension in another organ arteries or veins, lymph >2-3 cm firmer and no mets
  35. stage 4B?
    tumor >10 cm and lymph is 3-5, partially moveable, firstmer or >5 and extended and fixed to bone, vessels skin or nerves and no mets
  36. stage 4C cancer?
    timore >10cm, fixed and destructive, extension into second stations, mets are solitary or multiple
  37. CAUTION?
    • C=change in bladder or bowel
    • A= sore that does not heal in good time
    • U= unusual bleeding or discharge from ant body orfice
    • T= thickening of or the presence of a lump
    • I=indigestion of difficulty swallowing
    • O= obvious change in wart or mole such as color, size or texture
    • N= naggin cough or hoarsness that is prolonged
  38. types of care for the caner pt?
    surgery, pallitive, reconstructive, radiation
  39. 2nd most common healing method?
  40. breakage of choromosomes inside the cell, preventing the ability to replicate
    internal radiation
  41. shrinks size of tumor
    preoperative radiation
  42. decrease risk of local recurrence
    postoperative radiation
  43. how is radiation classified?
    curative or pallitive
  44. how is external radiation noted?
    thru skin markings that should not be washed off
  45. how long are external radiation treatments?
    1-3 min and is painless
  46. how should the nurse prepare for radiation
    prepare all the equipment outside the room, limit exposure and wear lead apron
  47. drugs used in chemo that inhibit the growth and reproduction of malignant cells, most are CCS or CCNS
  48. attack cancer cells when the cells enter a certain phase of reproduction, most effective against rapidly growing tumors, best results when administered in multiple repeated doses
    CCS (cell cycle specific)
  49. destroy cancer in any phase of the cell cycle, cells are destroyed based on the amount of the drug given
    CCNS (Cell cycle nonspecific)
  50. usually administered after surgery or radiation
    anticancer agents
  51. routes of cytoxic agents
    oral and IV but can be topical, sq, im, intracathecal
  52. agents that are so irritating that they can blister and cause necrosis so all sites must be monitored for leakage of fluid from the vein into the surrounding tissue or extravasation
  53. what are s/s of vesicants?
    pain or burning at site, absent or sluggish blood return, swelling , redness 6-12 hrs later, diffuse hardening,
  54. where should laundry be placed that chemo patients have with any bodyily fluids?
    special laundry sack
  55. side effects of chemo?
    clay colored stool, unusual bleeding, loss of taste, tingling of the face fingers or toes, rash, sore throat, jaundice, yellowing of the eyes, dark urine, dyspnea
  56. aspirated and stored while the client is exposed to high doese of chemo or total body irridation the bone marrow is reinfused when treatment is complete
    bone marrow
  57. hospital stay for a bone barrow?
    35-40 days
  58. complications of bone marrow?
    infection, bleeding, GI effect, renal insufficiency, veno occlusive disease, graft vs host disease
  59. what should be monitored since malignant and normal cells are killed thru chemo
    blood counts
  60. low neutropenia means what?
    low wbc count and should be on reverse precautions
  61. low platelet counts? and what to monitor?
    below 50,000 and watch for bleeding, bruises and petechiae
  62. what meds should we hold ?
    ASA or acetylsalicylic acid containing meds
  63. if bleeding occurs how long shoud we hold the bleeding site
    pressure for 5min and report is persist for more than 5min!
  64. state of malnutrition and protein wasting
  65. the body digest muscle instead of storing fat
  66. what is considered malnutrition of a cancer patient?
    10% of weight loss and a serum albumin level of 3.4
  67. nutritional problems associated with cachexia?
    anorexia, NV, altered taste sensation, mucosal inflammation and dysphasia
  68. how to handle anorexia in cancer pt?
    I and O daily, small frequent meals, high cal foods
  69. N/V in cancer PT?
    occurs in 3-4 hrs of chemo and last 72 hrs after
  70. how to fix N/V?
    liquids 30-60 min before mouth care, small feedings, bland foods
  71. cancer pt taste what?
  72. how to help with dysphasia?
    artificial saliva, soft diet with supplements, avoid dry foods, pureed foods, allow time to eat
  73. occurs in 1/2 of cancer pt, occurs 7-14 days after chemo, last 2-3 wks
  74. what can cause painful swallowing
    mucositis or esophagitis
  75. muscosal inflammation can also be found where?
  76. early signs of mucosal inflammation
    edema, ulceration, erythema, excessive salavia, infection
  77. interventions for mucosal inflammation
    oral care X4/day, avoid rough, chewy foods and acidic foods, mouthwashes containing alcohol, lemon swabs, use straws, posicles numb the mouth
  78. what can be ordered of rinses that can be helpful after meals for mucosal inflammation?
    xylocaince rinses and saline rinse
  79. what can cause chronic pain?
    metastatic bone disease, venouse or lymphatic obsrtuction and nerve compression
  80. the thinning or loss of hair, may be induced by chemo or radiation treatments, scalp hair is the most common
  81. true or false?
    treatments for cancer interfere with the process of the hair follicle?
  82. after treatment when does the hair begin to be lost?
    2-3 wks
  83. when treatment is completed when does hair grow back?
  84. embarrasment is a big deal with cancer patients for what?
    the odor that comes along with it
  85. a client can get fluid accumulation in the lungs and we should auscultate lung sounds how often?
  86. fluid accumulation in the ABD?
  87. procedure where excess fluid is withdrawn from the abd wall
  88. whats the first nursing intervention for ascites?
    measure the girth of the abd
  89. interventions for ascites?
    daily weight, fluid restriction, good skin care, fowler postitioning, monitor electrolyte imbalances
  90. after chemo what are things that can happen to women?
  91. chemo can cause what in women?
    vaginal dryness
  92. what can happen to men in chemo treatment?
    impotence, decreased libido, interupted sperm production, ejaculation problems
  93. s/s of hypercalcemia?
    n/v, constipation and weakness
  94. later symptoms of hypercalcemia that ca cause problems?
    dehydration, renal failure, coma and cardiac arrest
  95. treatment for hypercalcemia?
    normal saline and lasix which help excrete
  96. chief s/s?
    spinal cord compression
  97. aggrivating factors of spinalcord compression?
    lying down, coughing or moving
  98. alieviating factors of spinal cord compression
    sitting upright
  99. caused by an obstruction of the superior vena cava, most likely due to lung cancer or lymphomas
    superior vena cava syndrome
  100. s/ of superior vena cava syndrome?
    dyspnea, swelling of the face and neck, chest pain, coughing, H/A, visual disturbances and LOC
  101. treatment of superior vena cava syndrome
    o2, keep calm, restful environment, limit activities, monitor resp, dont elevate lower extremities
  102. caused by the formation of pericardial fluid, this reduces the cardiac output by compressing the heart
    cardiac tamponade
  103. s/s of cardiac tamponade
    rapid weak pulse, distended neck veins, pleural effusion, ascites, enlarged spleen, lethargy, altered LOC
  104. treatment of cardiac tamponade
    pericardiiocentesis (aspiration of fluid constricting heart)
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