- *Natural sunlight in the enviroment(UVB) 7-8 mins.
- *Released by the lipid cells into the blood stream, then converted by the liver into a active form for the human body.
- *The key to absorption of calcium in the body.
- *A key building block for your bones(matrix).
- *Helps in Nerve and Muscle function.
Skeletal System functions:
- *Framework of body.
- *Supports and protects internal organs.
- *Ca storage and supply.
- *Red Bone Marrow important function of blood cells is located in spongy bone.
- *Stem Cells......
The protection of sunlight of the skin.
- *Weight-barring to oxygenerate bones.(brisk walking yoga, ect).
- *Assist with bone density(strong bones).
What is the composition of bone?
- *Formed of Connective Tissue(2nd strongest)(1st strongest is enamel).
- -can regenerate it self(fx).
- -6-8 weeks to heal depending on the type of patient, Fx and bone affected.
- *Compact bone(bone density) peak bone mass is at age 30 yrs.
- -hemopoetic(forms blood cells).
- *Spongy bone(red bone marrow).
- -living structure(organ).
- *Smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue(2nd hardest).
- *Acts as a shock absorber between the bones(shoulder, elbow,wrist).
- *Meniscus is curved fibrous cartilage found in the knee and jaw.
shaft of a long bone(femur).
wide end of a long bone(humerus).
end of the bone located closest to the midline.
end of the bone located furthest away from the midline.
little boney bump begining to end.
- location: red bone marrow.
- Lighter and less strong then compact bone.
Yellow Bone Marrow
- fat storage, composed of fat cells.
- located in Medullary Cavity.
- *Ball and socket joints(hip and shoulders).
- -ROM is greater.
- *Hinge joints(knee, elbow).
- -ROM is limited.
Joint (articulations) are connections between bones.
- Suture-immovable joint allows for growth(25yrs).
- Fontanelles- newborn soft spot of head or brain(1st yr of growth).
Diffrence between fontanelles and sutures?
child matures the sutures (no movement)close together and the fontanelles(flexable) harden.
- 1st 7 pairs are true ribs(14).
- 2nd 3 pairs are false ribs(6).
- final 2 pairs are floating ribs(4).
- attached to sternum.
- average adult 1/3 of height (19in)(48cm).
- largest and sttrongest bone of body.
- capable of supporting multiple times a person's body weight.
- a opening in a bone through which blood vessels,nerves, ligaments pass(plural, foramina).
- example the spinal cord passes thru foramen magnum of the occipital bone.
shorter bone of the forarm(located on the thumb side).
Bones of the arm
- humerus (bone of upper arm).
- radius(short bone of forarm, thumb side).
- ulna (longer bone of the forarm articulates with the humerus to form the elbow joint; fifth digit side).
- smallest bones.
- six tiny bones in middle ear.
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium(C).
Cranial and facial bones
- nasal bone(F).
- frontal bone(C).
- sphenoid bone(C).
- occipital bone(C).
- lacrimal bone(F).
- ethmoid bone(C).
- parietal bone(C).
Vertebral column(spinal column)
- supports head and protects spinal cord.
- 31 pairs of spinal nerves(cervical to sacrum).
- 26 vertebrae(c7,T12,L5,S1,c1).
- midback region
- forms the outward curve of the spine.
- kyphosis is common inthis region of the spine.
- an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
- Kyph means hump.
- -osis means abnormal condition.(humpback,dowager's hump).
- the surgical repair of damaged cartilage
- chondr/o: cartilage
- -plasty:surgical repair.
- L1-L5 make up the third set of five vertebrae
- forms the inward curve of spine.
- largest and strongest of vertebrae.
- common site for back injury or pain.
- obesity, pregnancy, osteoporosis,MVA, poor ergonomics, and sports related injuries.
- three small bones found in middle ear.
- transmits sound wave from eardrum to inner ear by vibration.
- Malleus: hammer.
- Incus: anvil.
- Stapes: stirrup
- is a inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone.
- bacterial infection originates from another part of body and spreads to bone through blood.
- oste/o: means bone.
- myel: bone marrow.
- -itis: inflammation.
axis(c2) mobility, rotation.
- shoulder blade.
- plural: scapulae.
- aka funny bone, is a large projection on the upper end of the ulna.
- point of elbow exposes a nerve that tingles when struck.
- aka ribs.
- 12 pairs
- attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae.
- cost: ribs
- -al: pertaining to.
- aka heel bone.
- the largest tarsal bones.
the ankle bone and articulates with the tibia/fibula.
the rounded bony protrusion on each side of the ankle.
- Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
- -march 27, 1845 - feb 10, 1923.
- -father of diagnostic radiology: medical speciality which uses imaging to diagnose disease.
- -discoverd the X Ray in November 8, 1895
humira & enbrel (injectables)
treatment and medications for rheumatoid arthritis.
- secretes synovial fluid.
- synovial fluid lubricates the joints for movement.
- bursa cushions to minimize friction in shoulders, elbows, and knees.
structures of vertebra
- body( anterior portion).
- lamina(posterior portion).
- vertebral foramen(spinal cord passes thru opening).
- inflammation of one or two joints.
- (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis: synovial membranes become inflamed.
- RA more common in women then men, occurs between ages 40-60.
RA sign and symptoms
- joint pain and damage.(12 months)
- joint swelling.
- tendor joints.
- red and puffy hands.
- effects small joints first(wrist, hands, ankles, feet)
rheumatoid arthritis cause? (genetics)
- immune system attacts the synovium, the lining of the membranes that surround the joints.
- imflammtion thickens the synovium, invade and destroy the cartilage and bone within the joint.
osteoporosis loss of bone density and increase in porosity(porses)
- weakens bones, increase risk of fractions.
- most common bone disease.
- spinal compression go undiagnosed, patients think its back pain or arthritis