1. Vitamin D
    • *Natural sunlight in the enviroment(UVB) 7-8 mins.
    • *Released by the lipid cells into the blood stream, then converted by the liver into a active form for the human body.
    • *The key to absorption of calcium in the body.
  2. Calcium
    • *A key building block for your bones(matrix).
    • *Helps in Nerve and Muscle function.
  3. Skeletal System functions:
    • *Framework of body.
    • *Supports and protects internal organs.
    • *Ca storage and supply.
    • *Red Bone Marrow important function of blood cells is located in spongy bone.
    • *Stem Cells......
  4. Melanin
    The protection of sunlight of the skin.
  5. Exercise
    • *Weight-barring to oxygenerate bones.(brisk walking yoga, ect).
    • *Assist with bone density(strong bones).
  6. What is the composition of bone?
    • *Formed of Connective Tissue(2nd strongest)(1st strongest is enamel).
    • -can regenerate it self(fx).
    • -6-8 weeks to heal depending on the type of patient, Fx and bone affected.
    • *Compact bone(bone density) peak bone mass is at age 30 yrs.
    • -hemopoetic(forms blood cells).
    • *Spongy bone(red bone marrow).
    • -living structure(organ).
  7. Cartilage
    • *Smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue(2nd hardest).
    • *Acts as a shock absorber between the bones(shoulder, elbow,wrist).
    • *Meniscus is curved fibrous cartilage found in the knee and jaw.
  8. Diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone(femur).
  9. Epiphysis
    wide end of a long bone(humerus).
  10. Proximal Epiphysis
    end of the bone located closest to the midline.
  11. Distal Epiphysis
    end of the bone located furthest away from the midline.
  12. Epicondrial
    little boney bump begining to end.
  13. Spongy Bone
    • location: red bone marrow.
    • Lighter and less strong then compact bone.
  14. Yellow Bone Marrow
    • fat storage, composed of fat cells.
    • located in Medullary Cavity.
  15. Synovial Joints
    • *Ball and socket joints(hip and shoulders).
    • -ROM is greater.
    • *Hinge joints(knee, elbow).
    • -ROM is limited.
  16. Joint (articulations) are connections between bones.
    • Suture-immovable joint allows for growth(25yrs).
    • Fontanelles- newborn soft spot of head or brain(1st yr of growth).
  17. Diffrence between fontanelles and sutures?
    child matures the sutures (no movement)close together and the fontanelles(flexable) harden.
  18. Five membranes
    • lipo
    • mono
    • basil
    • neotrophilies
  19. Thoracic Cavity(ribs)
    • 1st 7 pairs are true ribs(14).
    • 2nd 3 pairs are false ribs(6).
    • final 2 pairs are floating ribs(4).
    • attached to sternum.
  20. Femur
    • average adult 1/3 of height (19in)(48cm).
    • largest and sttrongest bone of body.
    • capable of supporting multiple times a person's body weight.
  21. Foramen
    • a opening in a bone through which blood vessels,nerves, ligaments pass(plural, foramina).
    • example the spinal cord passes thru foramen magnum of the occipital bone.
  22. Radius
    shorter bone of the forarm(located on the thumb side).
  23. Bones of the arm
    • humerus (bone of upper arm).
    • radius(short bone of forarm, thumb side).
    • ulna (longer bone of the forarm articulates with the humerus to form the elbow joint; fifth digit side).
  24. Auditory Ossicles
    • smallest bones.
    • six tiny bones in middle ear.
  25. Occipital bone
    forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium(C).
  26. Cranial and facial bones
    • mandible(F).
    • maxilla(F).
    • zygomatic(F).
    • nasal bone(F).
    • frontal bone(C).
    • sphenoid bone(C).
    • temporal(C).
    • occipital bone(C).
    • lacrimal bone(F).
    • ethmoid bone(C).
    • parietal bone(C).
  27. Vertebral column(spinal column)
    • supports head and protects spinal cord.
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves(cervical to sacrum).
    • 26 vertebrae(c7,T12,L5,S1,c1).
  28. T spine
    • midback region
    • forms the outward curve of the spine.
    • kyphosis is common inthis region of the spine.
  29. kyphosis
    • an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
    • Kyph means hump.
    • -osis means abnormal condition.(humpback,dowager's hump).
  30. Chondroplasty
    • the surgical repair of damaged cartilage
    • chondr/o: cartilage
    • -plasty:surgical repair.
  31. L spine
    • L1-L5 make up the third set of five vertebrae
    • forms the inward curve of spine.
    • largest and strongest of vertebrae.
    • common site for back injury or pain.
    • obesity, pregnancy, osteoporosis,MVA, poor ergonomics, and sports related injuries.
  32. Auditory Ossicles
    • three small bones found in middle ear.
    • transmits sound wave from eardrum to inner ear by vibration.
    • Shapes:
    • Malleus: hammer.
    • Incus: anvil.
    • Stapes: stirrup
  33. Osteomyelitis
    • is a inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone.
    • bacterial infection originates from another part of body and spreads to bone through blood.
    • oste/o: means bone.
    • myel: bone marrow.
    • -itis: inflammation.
  34. epistropheus
    axis(c2) mobility, rotation.
  35. scapula
    • shoulder blade.
    • plural: scapulae.
  36. olecranon process
    • aka funny bone, is a large projection on the upper end of the ulna.
    • point of elbow exposes a nerve that tingles when struck.
  37. costal
    • aka ribs.
    • 12 pairs
    • attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae.
    • cost: ribs
    • -al: pertaining to.
  38. calcaneus
    • aka heel bone.
    • the largest tarsal bones.
  39. talus
    the ankle bone and articulates with the tibia/fibula.
  40. malleolus
    the rounded bony protrusion on each side of the ankle.
  41. Rontgen Rays
    • Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen
    • -march 27, 1845 - feb 10, 1923.
    • -father of diagnostic radiology: medical speciality which uses imaging to diagnose disease.
    • -discoverd the X Ray in November 8, 1895
  42. terms
    • Femur
    • Arthritis
    • calcium
    • clavicle
    • epiphysis
    • kyphosis
    • synovial
    • zygomatic
  43. humira & enbrel (injectables)
    treatment and medications for rheumatoid arthritis.
  44. synovial membrane
    • secretes synovial fluid.
    • synovial fluid lubricates the joints for movement.
    • bursa cushions to minimize friction in shoulders, elbows, and knees.
  45. structures of vertebra
    • body( anterior portion).
    • lamina(posterior portion).
    • vertebral foramen(spinal cord passes thru opening).
  46. arthritis
    • inflammation of one or two joints.
    • (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis: synovial membranes become inflamed.
    • RA more common in women then men, occurs between ages 40-60.
  47. RA sign and symptoms
    • joint pain and damage.(12 months)
    • joint swelling.
    • tendor joints.
    • red and puffy hands.
    • effects small joints first(wrist, hands, ankles, feet)
  48. rheumatoid arthritis cause? (genetics)
    • immune system attacts the synovium, the lining of the membranes that surround the joints.
    • imflammtion thickens the synovium, invade and destroy the cartilage and bone within the joint.
  49. osteoporosis loss of bone density and increase in porosity(porses)
    • weakens bones, increase risk of fractions.
    • most common bone disease.
    • spinal compression go undiagnosed, patients think its back pain or arthritis
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