1. Biology
    The study of life and all of its processes in order for life to survive
  2. Characteristics of Life
    Living things carry out
  3. Metabolism
    they obtain and use energy
  4. Mobility
    Living things have mobility
  5. Respond to the Stimuli
    Living Organisms respond to the stimuli with in the environment
  6. Grow and Develop
    living things grow and develop
  7. Cells
    living things are highly ordered and organized into units called cells
  8. 2 Cell Types
    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  9. Living Organisms
    contain genetic material within their cells that are passed onto the next generation
  10. Genetic Material
    There are 2 types D.N.A - Dioxybonucleic Acid and R.N.A. - Ribonucleic Acid
  11. Reproduce
    Living things Reproduce themselves or new cells arise from preexisting cells.
  12. Reproduction for all living things on the Planet
    2 Types - Asexual Reproduction & Sexual Reproduction
  13. Evolve and Adapt
    Adapt - uses the traits you have to change the environment. Evolve - genetic change over time; species population
  14. Must have all 8 Characteristics to be alive
    • 1. Metabolism
    • 2. Mobility
    • 3. Respond to Stimuli
    • 4. Grow and develop
    • 5. Cells
    • 6. Genetic Material
    • 7. Reproduce
    • 8. Evolve and Adapt
  15. Levels of Organization in Biology
    • Hiearchy of Life
    • Atoms - Molecule - cell - tissue - organs - Body System (11 in the body) - Organism
    • Population -- Community -- Ecosystem -- Biospere
  16. Classification System
    In 1735 Carolus Linnacus devised a classification system to organize the diversity of nature
  17. Binomial Nomenclature
    Every Organism has two proper names: Genus and Species name.
  18. The Standard Groupings of Classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  19. Domains
    • Achaea - Primitive Bacteria - Only live in harsh environments
    • Bacteria
    • Eukarya
  20. Each Domain has a Kingdom
    Look at Eukarya:
    • Plants - make their own food
    • Animal - consume; eat living things
    • Fungi - decomposers eat dead things
    • Protista - single cell, live in water
  21. Scientific Method -
    • Observe patterns in nature
    • Ask a question
    • Develop a hypothesis
    • Make a prediction of the hypothesis (that tells you how to make the test)
    • Test
    • Conclusion
    • Publish
  22. Theory -
    A general principle about nature that is highly (repeatedly) tested, and never disproven
  23. The Chemical Basis of Life
    Atoms, Molecules and Life
  24. def: Chemical Element
    A substance that can not be transformed into other substances
  25. How many naturally occuring elements are there
    There are 92 natural occuring elements
  26. 98% of all living matter is composed of what 6 elements
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Sulpher
    • Phosphourus
  27. What are the 3 phases and their difference
    • Liquid - Atoms at a very slow speed
    • Gas - Atoms move at a very rapid place
    • Solid - Atoms are fixed in place
  28. def: Compund -
    a substance containing two or more elements bonded together
  29. def: Atom
    the smallest unit of any chemical element
  30. The Atomic Structure
    Atomic Regions - Nucleus, Shell

    Sub-Atomic Particles: Neutrons, Protons, Electrons
  31. def: Atomic Number
    Number of Protons within the Atom
  32. def: Atomic Mass
    The total Number of Protons and Neutrons of an atom

    -Remember: the total number of electrons always equal the total number of protons; making the atom neutral
  33. def: Electron Shells -
    it holds the electrons around the nucleus

    • 1st Shell contains a maximum of 2 electrons
    • 2nd Shell and more...can contain a maximum of 8 electrons
    • When the outershell is maxed out the atom is stable
  34. How do Atoms form compounds?
    Through Chemical Bounds

    • There are 5 types
    • 3 Basic Types we will discuss
  35. What Are the 3 basic types of chemical bonds?
    • 1. Covalent - Shares the electrons between atoms.
    • A. Non Polar Covalent - Atoms share equally
    • B. Polar Covalent - Atoms dont share equally (such as water compounds not H20)
    • 2. Ionic Bonds - When 1 atom physically loses an electron to another
    • 3.Hydrogen Bonds - when a hydrogen atom bonds to another compound. This is the weakest bond of the three.
  36. Water - Why is it important to life?
    • 1. Cohesion - bonds to itself
    • Adhesion - bonds to something else
    • 2.Stabilizes Temperature
    • 3. Has a very high boiling point 212F / 100C
    • 4. A very low freezing point 32F / 0C
    • 5. It acts as a very good coolant
    • 6. Its an excellant Solvent - (Good at Dissolving)
    • Solute - is the substance that is dissolved
    • 7. Water is less dense in solid form
    What is it?
    The movement of compunds from an area of high concentration to an area of low conentration.

    (Cell membranes causes diffusion not to occur)
    def: Osmosis - the moment of water across a membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration

    A type of Diffusion

    Osmosis only occurs if there is a membrane
  39. pH Scale
    • The pH scale ranges from 0-14
    • 0-7 is Acid (H+)
    • 7-14 is Base (OH-)
  40. Molecules of Life

    What are they??
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Proteins
  41. LIPIDS
    • Characterized by its inability to dissolve in water
    • Rich Source of energy
    • 1. Fatty Acids
    • Simplest of Lipids
    • Important in the cell membrane (Phospholipids)
    • 2. Fats and Oils (2 Types)
    • Unsaturated - Good Type (liquid at room temp)
    • Saturated - Bad type (Solid at room temp)
    • 3.Steroids - Lipid Only
    • Hormones of the body (Chemical Messenger)
    • Cholesterol is the main steroid of the body
    • 4.Waxes
    • Conserves and Repels Water
    • 1. Monosaccharides
    • Simplest Sugars
    • Primary source of energy
    • 2.Disaccharides
    • Bonding 2 Sugar units together
    • 3.Polysaccharides
    • Glycogen - found in the muscle and liver at animals
    • Storage of Sugar in Animals
    • Starchs - Storage of sugar in plants
    • Cellulose - Sugar units used in the structure of the cell wall in plants
    • Chitin - makes the exoskeleton of Arthopods and other strong structures
    are built from Ammino Acid compounds. There are 20 million different Ammino Acids that create millions. The order and the amounts are what count

    • Function:
    • Structure
    • Hormones - Chemical Messengers
    • Enzymes - Speed up chemeical reaction
    • Transportation
    • Are built from nucleotide compounds ( ATP Energy carrier)
    • phosphate - Sugar - Nucleic Base

    • Functions:
    • Energy Carriers - ATP NaDh
    • Hormones
    • Enzymes
    • Genetic Material (DNA & RNA)
    • (DNA have 2 strands)(RNA have 1 stands)
    Who was he first person to see a cell? -Robert Hooke

    He called them cellulae (Latin for Tiny Compartments)
    3 main points

    • 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
    • 2. The cell is the smallest unit having the properties of life
    • 3. Cells reproduce from existing cells
    • Every living cell on this planet has 3 basic structures
    • 1. Plasma membrane or cell membrane (Not the cell wall)
    • 2. A genetic material region
    • 3. Cytoplasm - fluid filled space in the wall
    1. Prokaryotic - No nucleus/organelles, ;ast longer, more simple, DNA/Bacterial Flagellum/Pilus/Capsule/Cell Wall/ Plasma Membrane/Citoplasm/Ribosomes

    2. Eukaryotic - Have Nucleus and Organelles
    • The (Fluid Mosaic Model) of the cell membrane
    • The Fluid Portion -
    • -a bilayer of phospholipids that freely move and promote fluidity
    • - the (mosaic) portion: a variety of different material embedded in the membrane itself such as....
    • Proteins
    • Cholesterol
    • Carbohydrates
    • Phospholipids

    • Membrane protein serves as
    • 1.Transports Proteins: allows dissolved substances into/out of the cell
    • 2.Receptor Proteins: binds hormones and other messengers tot he cell membrane
    • 3. Recognition Proteins: these identify the cell as (self) so its not attacked by the immune system
    • 4. Adhesion Proteins: help the cells stick together and remain in position in the body
    • 1. Regulates the flow of compounds into and out of the cell
    • 2. regulates the flow of chemical messages into the cell
    • 3. Protects he internal environment of the cell from the environment
    • Plants - Plasodesmata
    • Animals - Tight Junctions/Adhering Junctions/Communication (Gaps) Junction

    Tight Junctions: there connections between cell membranes so liquids cant get through

    Adhereing Junctions: There connections that hold cell membranes stick together (have adhereing proteins)

    Gap Junctions: a tunnel between the membranes...allows the cytoplasm to communicate between the cells
    • Funtions of the Nucleus
    • 1. Keep the DNA seperated from the rest of the cell
    • 2. Makes it easier to organize DNA and to copy it before cells divide into daughter cells. (We have 46 Chromosomes)(23 Pairs)
    Dense mass of material in the nucleus that produces Ribosomes (makes proteins)

    -Nuclear Envelop: Two outer membranes (Lipid Bi-Layers) Pores Span Layers
    • Extends throughout the cytoplasm
    • Two Regions (Rough & Smooth)
    • -ROUGH ER
    • --arranged into flattened surfaces
    • --Ribosomes on the surface give it a rough appearance
    • --uses the Ribosomes to produce proteins
    • -SMOOTH ER
    • --a series of interconnected tubules
    • --No Ribosomes on the surface
    • --Produces the lipids inside tubules
  55. GOLGI APPARATUS (Bodies)
    • Puts he finishing touches on proteins and lipids that arrive from the ER
    • Packages Finished Material for shipment to final destinations
    • Material arries and leaves in (Vesicles)
    • membraneous sacs that move and transport material through the cytoplasm
    • Types:
    • Transport Vesicles
    • Lysosomes (sac that has enzymes)
    • Peroxisomes (sac that has hydrogen peroxide in it)(Removes Toxins)
    • ATP producing powerhouses
    • Double Membrane System
    • Contains it own DNA

    • Outer Membrane
    • Inner Membrane
    • Inner Membrane Space
    • Matrix
    • Cristae
    • Basis for cell shape and internal organization(Pulls the vesicles)
    • Allows Organelle movement within the cells and in some cases cell mobility
    • Made from: Microtubules and Micorfilaments
    • Chloroplast
    • Central Vacuole
    • Cell Wall
    • -Choloplasts (Green in Color)
    • --converts sunlight energy into sugar
    • --performs photosynthesis (Sun+CO2+H2O>>>O2+suagr)
    • --Has 2 Membranes

    • -Central Vacuole
    • --fluid filled Organelle
    • --stores Ammino Acids, waters, sugars, wastes
    • --in a mature cell, central vacuole takes up to 50-90% of he cells interior

    • -Cell Wall
    • --structure and protection of the plant / made of cellulose
    • Centrioles - Built from CytoSkeleton
    • Funtions - only in the cellular reproduction
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