pharmacology ch 1

  1. Any chemical that can affect the living processes
  2. the study of drugs and their actions with living systems
  3. the most important property a drug can have
  4. the ability of a drug to elicit only the response for which it is given
  5. the study of drugs in humans
    clinical pharmacology
  6. the use of drugs to diagnose, prevent or treat disease or to prevent pregnancy
    • pharmacotherapeutics
    • or just
    • therapeutics
  7. a ____ drug is defined as one that cannot produce harmful effects--even if administered in very high doses and for a very long time
    • safe
    • there is no such thing as a safe drug. all drugs have the ability to cause injury, esp with high doses and prolonged use.
  8. some drugs lose effectiveness during storage. others may be stable on the shelf can rapidly lose effectiveness when put into solution (eg, in preparation for infusion). these losses in efficacy result from ________________.
    chemical instability

    an ideal drug would retain its activity indefinantly- chemical stability
  9. the impact of the body on drugs
    • pharmacokinetics
    • its four processes are:
    • 1. drug absorption
    • 2. drug distribution
    • 3. drug excretion
    • 4. drug excretion
  10. the impact of drugs on the body

    once a drug has reached its sites of action, pharmacodynamic processes determain the nature and intensity of the response.
  11. additional properties that a drug should "ideally" demonstrate are:
    Reversable action
    Ease of administration
    Freedom from drug interactions
    Low Cost
    Possession of a simple Generic name
    • Because no drug is ideal...
    • Because medications are not ideal, all members of the healthcare team must exercise care to promote therapeutic effects and minimize drug-induced harm
  12. The objective of drug therapy is to provide maximum benefit with minimum harm
    • multiple factors determine how an individual will respond to a prescribed dose of a particular drug:
    • administration
    • pharmacokinetics (how drugs circulate)
    • pharmacodynamics (how drugs act)
    • physiologic variables (age, gender, weight)
    • pathologic variables (esp diminished function of the kidneys and liver, the major organs of drug elimination)
    • and genetic variables
  13. four major pharmacokinetic processes are:
    • drug absorption
    • drug distribution
    • drug metabolism
    • drug excretion
Card Set
pharmacology ch 1
pharm ch 1