Toxicology Exam I

  1. Two mechanisms which make and unrecognizable mutation become recognizable
    • adaptive growth
    • restorative growth
  2. Adaptive growth
    • when the promotor acts directly on the altered cells causing it ot proliferate
    • also called positive selection
  3. Restorative growth
    • agent kills surrounding good cells via necrosis
    • also called negative selection
    • creates space for bad cells to proliferate
  4. Progression
    • recognizable tumor migrates
    • aided by enzymes
    • angiogenesis may occur
  5. angiogenesis
    a tumor creates its own blood supply and blood vessels
  6. Non-genotoxic carcinogens
    • chemicals that cause cancer but do not act directly on the DNA
    • no initiation
    • could involve promotors
  7. Mechanisms of Non-genotoxic carcinogens
    • increased cell proliferation
    • decreased apoptosis
    • increased activity of non-cancer cells
    • increased oxidative stress
    • inhibition of gap junction proteins
  8. Oncogenes come from
  9. proto-oncogenes are
    • normal elements in the body
    • utilized for norma cell growth
  10. When oncogenes are altered spontaneously or upon exposure to a chemical, they can lead to
    unchecked growth
  11. Examples of oncogenes
    • C-myc
    • FOS
    • RAS
  12. Oncoproteins
    • protein products of oncogenes
    • involved in cancer
    • become active kinases
  13. Tumor suppressor genes
    • anti-oncogenes
    • p53
Card Set
Toxicology Exam I
Dr. Badr's 3rd Lecture