Bio245 Lab Exm 1

  1. Define Anatomy
    The study of body structures
  2. Define gross anatomy
    The study of the structural features of the body without the aid of a microscope
  3. Define microanatomy
    The study of microscopic structures
  4. Define Physiology
    The study of how the body functions & of the work that cells must do to keep the body stable & operating efficiently
  5. Define Homeostasis
    The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment
  6. Give an example of an item that represents the Chemical Level of organization
    Complex protein molecule
  7. Give an example of an item that represents the Cellular Level of Organization
    Heart muscle cell
  8. Give an example of an item that represents the Tissue Level of Organization
    Cardiac muscle tissue
  9. Give an example of an item that represents the Organ Level of organization
    The Heart
  10. Give an example of an item that represents the Organ System level of organization
  11. Give an example of an item that represents the Organism level of organization
    Human body
  12. Explain Anatomical position
    Standing erect w/feet pointed forward, the eyes straight ahead & the palms of the hands facing frwrd w/upper limbs at the sides
  13. What does supine mean?
    When a person in anatomical position is lying on their back
  14. What does prone mean?
    When a person in anatomical position is lying face down
  15. Anterior is aka?
    Ventral or (Inferior) in animals
  16. Anterior
    The front; before
  17. Ventral
    The belly side (eqiv to anterior in humans)
  18. Posterior
    The back; behind
  19. Dorsal
    The back (equiv to posterior in humans)
  20. Cranial or cephalic
    The head
  21. Superior
    Above; at a higher level (in humans twrd the head)
  22. Caudal
    The tail (coccyx in humans)
  23. Inferior
    Below; at a lower level
  24. Medial
    Toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsagittal plane
  25. Lateral
    Away from the body's longitudinal axis; away from the midsagittal plane
  26. Proximal
    Toward an attached base
  27. Distal
    Away from an attached base
  28. Superficial
    At, near, or relatively close to the body surface
  29. Deep
    Farther from the body surface
  30. Cephalic region
  31. Cranial region
  32. Facial region
  33. Cervical region
  34. Thoracic region
    Thorax, Chest
  35. Pectoral region
    Part of chest only rght above breasts
  36. Abdominal region
    Abdomen, Belly, Stomach
  37. Pelvic region
  38. Umbilical region
  39. Inguinal region
  40. Pubic region
  41. Axillary region
  42. Brachial region
  43. Antebrachial region
  44. Carpel region
  45. Palmer region
  46. Digit region
  47. Acromial (scapular) region
  48. Antecubital region
    Front of Elbow
  49. Dorsal region
  50. Lumbar Region
  51. Gluteal region
  52. Femoral region
  53. Patellar region
    Knee cap
  54. Popliteal region
    Back of Knee
  55. Tarsal region
  56. Plantar region
    Sole of Foot
  57. Pedal region
  58. Name the 4 quadrants
  59. RUQ means?
    Right Upper Quadrant
  60. RLQ means?
    Right Lower Quadrant
  61. LUQ means?
    Left Upper Quadrant
  62. LLQ means?
    Left Lower Quadrant
  63. From rght to lft what are the 9 thoracic regions?
  64. What does RHR stand for?
    Right Hypochondriac Region
  65. What does RLR stand for?
    Right Lumbar Region
  66. What does RIR stand for?
    Right Inguinal Region
  67. What does LHR stand for?
    Left Hypochondriac Region
  68. What does LLR stand for?
    Left Lumbar Region
  69. What does LIR stand for?
    Left Inguinal Region
  70. What does ER stand for?
    Epigastric Region
  71. What does UR stand for?
    Umbilical Region
  72. What does HR stand for?
    Hypogastric Region
  73. Liver is in which quadrant?
  74. Urinary Bladder is in which quadrant?
  75. Gallbladder is in which quadrant?
  76. Stomach is in which quadrant?
  77. Appendix is in which quadrant?
  78. Lrg intestine is in which quadrant?
  79. Spleen is in which quadrant?
  80. Small Intestine is in which quadrant?
  81. Define/Describe Transverse
    Horizontal sectioning across the body separating Superior & Inferior sections
  82. Define/Describe Sagittal
    Vertical sectioning, separating body/organ into L&R portions (not equal)
  83. Define/Describe Midsagittal
    Vertical sectioning that equally divides structures into L&R portions
  84. Define/Describe Parasagittal
    Vertical sectioning, separating into L&R portions that produces nearly equal divisions
  85. Define/Describe Frontal (coronal)
    Vertical sectioning that divides body into Anterior and Posterior sections
  86. Define/Describe Oblique
    A diagnal cut (used often in clinical settings)
  87. Draw pic & label the 9 Abdominopelvic Regions.
  88. Dorsal Cavity located?
    It's a combo of Cranial & Spinal cavities grouped together so it starts at the head and ends at the end of the spine
  89. Label/Describe Specific location of the Cranial Cavity
    The space inside the oval cranium of the skull that surrounds & safeguards the brain
  90. Label/Describe Specific location of the Spinal Cavity
    It's a long, narrow canal that continues through the vertebral column on dorsal. Starts at base of skull and end before coccyx
  91. What organ is in Cranial Cavity?
  92. What organ is in the Spinal Cavity?
    Spinal Cord (Nervous System)
  93. Describe location of Ventral Cavity
    Entire body trunk, anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to abdom muscle wall & sternum (breastbone)
  94. Ventral cavity is split into 2 major subcavities?

    What are they?
    Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic Cavity
  95. Subdivisions of Thoracic cavity?
    Pleural cavities, Mediastinum, Pericardial cavity
  96. Subdivisions of Abdominopelvic cavity?
    Abdominal cavity, Pelvic cavity, Diaphragm
  97. Example of structure in Pleural Cavitiy
  98. Where is the Pleural cavity?
    On each side of the chest
  99. Where is the Mediastinum?
    Between the Pleural cavities
  100. What structures are in the Mediastinum?
    Inferior portions of the esophagus & thymus
  101. Where is the Pericardial Cavity?
    In the Mediastinum
  102. What is in the Pericardial Cavity?
    The Heart
  103. Where is the Abdominal cavity?
    entire front of trunk ( "extends from inferior surface of diaphragm to the level of the superior margins of the pelvis")
  104. What structure(s) does the Abdominal Cavity contain?
    Liver, Stomach, Spleen, S & L Intestines
  105. Where is the Pelvic Cavity?
    "Portion of Ventral Cavity inferior to abdominal cavity"
  106. What structure(s) does the Pelvic Cavity contain?
    Urinary bladder, various reproductive oragans
  107. Where is the Diaphragm?
    Going across the body separating the Abdominal & Thoracic cavities
  108. Define Diaphragm
    A muscle wall located in the Ventral Cavity separating the 2 subdividing cavities Thoracic & Abdominopelvic
  109. What structure(s) does the Diaphragm contain?
    None, it is a muscle wall
  110. Define Serous membrane
    A double layered membrane that isolates an organ & reduces friction & abrasion on the organ's surface
  111. Fxns of Serous membrane:
    1) Lubricates surfaces; prevents friction

    2) Anchors organs in on spot

    3) Lines Ventral Cavity
  112. Compare Visceral & Parietal layers of serous membranes
    Visceral layer= right on organ's surface

    Parietal layer= closer to or anchored on body wall (creating a space)
  113. Location of Pericardial (serous) membrane
    Around the Heart
  114. Location of Pleural (serous) membrane
    Around the Lungs
  115. Location of Peritoneal (serous) membrane?
    Lines the walls of the abdominal cavity & holds certain organs in place (stomach, spleen, gall bladder)---like pleural cavity in thoracic cavity
  116. itis
  117. Pericarditis
    • Inflammation of the pericardial lining
    • (may cause accumulation of pericardial fluid)
  118. Pleuritis
    • Inflammation of the pleural cavities
    • (may cause a sound knwn as pleural rub)
  119. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum after infection or injury
  120. Where can you find Simple squamous epithelium?
    Air sacs, lining of blood vessels
  121. Where can you find Stratified squamous epithelium?
    Lining of the mouth, epidermis (skin)
  122. Where can you find Simple cuboidal epithelium?
    Kidneys, liver, pancreas
  123. Where can you find Stratified cuboidal epithelium?
    Sweat glands, sweat gland ducts
  124. Where can you find Simple columnar epithelium? (with or w/o cilia)
    Small intestines
  125. Where can you find Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
    Trachea, Larynx (a lot of cilia)
  126. Where can you find Transitional epithelium?
    Lines the urinary structures (bladder & ureters)
  127. Name the types of Epithelium
    -Simple squamous epithelium

    -Stratified squamous epithelium

    -Simple cuboidal epithelium

    -Stratified cuboidal epithelium

    -Simple columnar epithelium

    -Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium

    Transitional epithelium
  128. How many kinds of Muscle tissue are there?
    What are they?
    3---Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  129. Location of Skeletal muscle tissue
    It is attached to bones
  130. Location of Smooth muscle tissue
    Inside hollow organs (stomach, intestines, uterus, blood vessel)
  131. Location of Cardiac muscle tissue
    Forms the walls of the Heart
  132. Give Acronym for 11 Connective Tissues
  133. What is my acronym for MARADE HEFBB
    • Used to remember CTs:
    • I am= Mischievious, Amazing, Ridiculous, Adventurous, Determined, Energetic
    • Helpful, Friendly, Bold, Beautiful
  134. What does the acronym MARADE HEFBB actually stand for?
    • Names of Connective Tissue:
    • Mesenchyme, Areolar CT, Reticular CT, Adipose CT, Dense regular CT, Elastic CT, Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage, Fibrous cartilage, Bone-Compact bone, Blood tissue
  135. Which slide may say "white CT"?
    Dense regular CT
  136. Which slide may say "yellow CT"?
    Elastic cartilage
  137. In Blood CT, what is included?
    • Erythrocytes (RBC)
    • Leukocytes (WBC)
    • Thrombocytes (Platelets)
  138. Location of Mesenchyme
    In the developing Embryo
  139. Location of Nervous tissue
    98% is found in Brain & Spinal Cord
  140. Location of Neurons
    In nervous tissue which is mostly in brain & spinal cord
  141. Location of Neuroglial cells
    Also located in Nervous tissue which is mostly in brain & spinal cord..Little cells surrounding the Neurons
  142. Location of Areolar CT
    On dermis of skin & in serous membranes
  143. Location of Reticular CT
    Inside Liver, Spleen, & Bone marrow
  144. Location of Adipose CT
    Buttocks, Breasts
  145. Location of Dense regular CT
    Tendons, Ligments
  146. Location of Elastic CT
    Vocal cords, Blood vessel walls
  147. Location of Hyaline cartilage
    Forms part of Nasal septum
  148. Location of Elastic cartilage
    Epiglottis, Larnx, Auricle of external ear
  149. Location of Fibrous cartilage
    Pads within knee joint
  150. Location of Compact Bone
    Forms the Skeleton
  151. Location of Blood tissue
    Throughout Entire Body
Card Set
Bio245 Lab Exm 1
Bio245 Lab Exm 1- Intro To Human Body