- first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the 28th Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). He was a Republican and Progressive.
- Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of
- forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the
- nation's reserves by planned use and renewal. He called it "the art of
- producing from the forest whatever it can yield for the service of man."
- Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources
George Perkins Marsh
American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist. The Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park in Vermont takes its name, in part, from Marsh.
Newlands Reclamation Act 1902
- funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
- The act at first covered only 13 of the western states as Texas had
- no federal lands. Texas was added later by a special act passed in 1906.
- The act set aside money from sales of semi-arid public lands for the construction and maintenance of irrigation
- projects. The newly irrigated land would be sold and money would be put
- into a revolving fund that supported more such projects. This led to
- the eventual damming of nearly every major western river. Under the act,
- the Secretary of the Interior created the United States Reclamation Service within the United States Geological Survey to administer the program. In 1907 the Service became a separate organization within the Department of the Interior and was renamed the United States Bureau of Reclamation.
- Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club,
- which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation
- organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking
- trails in the U.S., the 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, was named in his honor. Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier.
The Sierra Club is the oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president.
Panic of 1907
Bankers' Panic, was a financial crisis that occurred in the United States when the New York Stock Exchange fell close to 50% from its peak the previous year. Panic occurred, as this was during a time of economic recession, and there were numerous runs on banks and trust companies. The 1907 panic eventually spread throughout the nation when many state and local banks and businesses entered into bankruptcy. Primary causes of the run include a retraction of market liquidity by a number of New York City banks and a loss of confidence among depositors, exacerbated by unregulated side bets at bucket shops.
Payne-Adlrich Tariff 1909
- named for Representative Sereno E. Payne (R-NY) and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich (R-RI), began in the United States House of Representatives as a bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering the United States. It was the first change in tariff laws since the Dingley Act of 1897. President William Howard Taft
- called Congress into a special session in 1909 shortly after his
- inauguration to discuss the issue. Thus, the House of Representatives
- immediately passed a tariff bill sponsored by Payne, calling for reduced
- tariffs. However, the United States Senate speedily substituted a bill written by Aldrich, calling for fewer reductions and more increases in tariffs.
- The New Freedom comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson
- in the 1912 presidential campaign. They called for less government but
- in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal
- Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. More generally the "New Freedom" is associated with Wilson's first term as president (1913-1917).
- Wilson's position in 1912 stood in opposition to Progressive party candidate Theodore Roosevelt's ideas of New Nationalism,
- particularly on the issue of antitrust modification. According to
- Wilson, "If America is not to have free enterprise, he can have freedom
- of no sort whatever." In presenting his policy, Wilson warned that New
- Nationalism represented collectivism, while New Freedom stood for political and economic liberty from such things as trusts (powerful monopolies). Wilson was strongly influenced by his chief economic advisor Louis D. Brandeis, an enemy of bigness and monopoly.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914
- to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act
- of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful
- to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton act
- specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement
- scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.
Federal Reserve Act [Glass-Owen Bill] 1913
The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, enacted December 23, 1913, 12 U.S.C. ch.3) is the Act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.
Federal Trade Commission FTC
- The Federal Trade Commission Act was one of President Wilson's major acts against trusts. Trusts and trust-busting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era. Since its inception, the FTC has enforced the provisions of the Clayton Act, a key antitrust statute, as well as the provisions of the FTC Act, 15 U.S.C. § 41
- et seq. Over time, the FTC has been delegated the enforcement of
- additional business regulation statutes and has promulgated a number of
- regulations (codified in Title 16 of the Code of Federal Regulations).
- extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission to include communications. Supported by President William Howard Taft,
- it also made the long-short haul clause of the original act more
- effective in that it strengthened government regulation of the
- prog reforms
- Josiah Strong (1847 – 1916) was an American Protestant clergyman, organizer, editor and author. He was one of the founders of the Social Gospel
- movement that sought to apply Protestant religious principles to solve
- the social ills brought on by industrialization, urbanization and
- immigration. He served as General Secretary (1886-1898) of the
- Evangelical Alliance for the United States, a coalition of Protestant
- missionary groups. After being forced out he set up his own group, the
- League for Social Service (1898-1916), and edited its magazine The Gospel of the Kingdom.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. (R-MA)
- statesman, a Republican politician, and a noted historian from Massachusetts. While the title was not official, he is considered to be one of the first Senate Majority leaders and was the first Senate Republican Leader, while serving concurrently as Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference.
- He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his
- battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of
- Versailles, which the United States Senate never ratified.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
- United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century."
- His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that the most powerful
- navy will control the globe; it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783
- (1890). The concept had an enormous influence in shaping the strategic
- thought of navies across the world, especially in the United States,
- Germany, Japan and Britain. His ideas still permeate the U.S. Navy.
- was the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
- On 16 September 1862, Liliʻuokalani married John Owen Dominis, who became Governor of Oʻahu and Maui.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
- It increased the duties on wool, woolen manufactures, on tin plate,
- barley and some other agricultural products and remitted the duty on raw
- sugar. The bill had a reciprocity feature which provided for the
- remission of duty on certain products from those countries which should
- remove duties on products imported from the United States. The law was
- repealed in 1894.
- "extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy".
- In practice, it refers to the advocation of the use of threats or
- actual force against other countries in order to safeguard what they
- perceive as their country's national interests, and colloquially to
- excessive bias in judging one's own country as superior to others – an extreme type of nationalism.
William Randolf Hearst
- American newspaper magnate and leading newspaper publisher. Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887, after taking control of The San Francisco Examiner from his father. Moving to New York City, he acquired The New York Journal and engaged in a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World which led to the creation of yellow journalism—sensationalized
- stories of dubious veracity. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a
- chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its
- peak. He later expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and
- magazine business in the world.
General Valeriano Weyler
- Spanish soldier.
- Weyler was born at Palma de Majorca on September 17, 1838 to a Spanish mother and a German father, who was a military doctor, and educated in Granada.
- His family was originally Prussian, and had served in the Spanish army
- for several generations. At the age of 16 Weyler entered the military
- college of infantry at Toledo.
- When he attained the rank of lieutenant he entered the staff college,
- graduating as the head of his class. Two years afterwards he became
- captain, and was sent to Cuba at his own request. Weyler began herding farm people into what were called reconcentrados,
- concentration camps. He penned up about 500,000 Cubans in these camps.
- Around 200,000 Cubans died from starvation and disease in these camps.
"Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain!"
"Splendid Little War"
Nickname for the Span-Am War
placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people."
- name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War
- and the only one of the three to see action. The United States army was
- weakened and left with little manpower after the Civil War roughly 30
- years prior. As a result, President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. It was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers" after its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood, as an acknowledgment of the fact that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry.
Commodore George Dewey
admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He was also the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy.
Treaty of Paris 1898
signaled the end of the Spanish Empire in America and the Pacific Ocean (see also the German–Spanish Treaty (1899)), and marked the beginning of an age of United States colonial power.
Foraker Act 1900
established civilian (limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had been newly acquired by the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. Section VII of the Foraker Act also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900  and it became known as the Foraker Act after its sponsor, Ohio Senator Joseph B. Foraker.
- was an organization established in the United States on June 15, 1898 to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area.
- The anti-imperialists opposed the expansion because they believed
- imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for
- "consent of the governed."
- They did not oppose expansion on commercial, constitutional, religious,
- or humanitarian grounds; rather they believed that annexation and
- administration of backward tropical areas would mean the abandonment of
- American ideals of self-government and isolation - ideals expressed in
- the Declaration of Independence, Washington's Farewell Address and Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
- The Anti-Imperialist League represented an older generation and were
- rooted in an earlier era; they were defeated in terms of public opinion,
- the 1900 election, and the actions of Congress and the President
- because most of the younger Progressives who were just coming to power
- supported imperialism.[2
- proto-nationalist movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists" (known as "Boxers" in English), in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing Western imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to European "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism. In China, popular sentiment remained resistant to Western influences, and anger rose over the "unequal treaties"
- (不平等條約), which the weak Qing state could not resist. There existed
- growing concerns that missionaries and Chinese Christians could use this
- decline to their advantage, appropriating lands and property of
- unwilling Chinese peasants to give to the church. This sentiment
- resulted in violent revolts against Western interests.
Open Door Notes
- with regard to China, it was first advanced by the United States in the Open Door Notes of September-November 1899. In 1898, the United States had become an East Asian power through the acquisition of the Philippine Islands, and when the partition of China by the European powers and Japan seemed imminent, the United States felt its commercial interests in China threatened. U.S. Secretary of State John Hay sent notes to the major powers (France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, and Russia),
- asking them to declare formally that they would uphold Chinese
- territorial and administrative integrity and would not interfere with
- the free use of the treaty ports within their spheres of influence in China. The open door policy stated that all European nations, and the United States, could trade with China.
was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln.
- English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for
- his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British
- soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.
"White Man's Burden"
- poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899, with the subtitle The United States and the Philippine Islands.
- Although Kipling's poem mixed exhortation to empire with sober warnings
- of the costs involved, imperialists within the United States understood
- the phrase "white man's burden" as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.
American lawyer and statesman and the 1912 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He was the prototype of the 20th century "wise man", who shuttled between high-level government positions in Washington, D.C. and private-sector legal practice in New York City.
"Big Stick" Policy
- form of hegemony and was the slogan describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
- The term originated from the African proverb "Speak softly and carry a
- big stick, you will go far". The idea of negotiating peacefully,
- simultaneously threatening with the "big stick", or the military, ties
- in heavily with the idea of Realpolitik, which implies an amoral pursuit of political power that resembles Machiavellian ideals.[
- Roosevelt first used the phrase in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair on September 2, 1901, twelve days before the assassination of President William McKinley, which subsequently thrust him into the Presidency.
"Great White Fleet"
nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability.
Commodore Matthew Perry
Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
- opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States
- trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however,
- the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence
- in these locations.
- The treaty did establish a foundation for the Americans to maintain a
- permanent consul in Shimoda. The arrival of the fleet would trigger the
- end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion (Sakoku).
Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905
was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on 5 September 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine (but named after nearby Portsmouth, New Hampshire) in the United States.
Taft-Takahira Agreement 1905
Root-Takahira Agreement 1908
agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan
- consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of
- November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial
- integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities, Japanese recognition of the American annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Philippines and American recognition of Japan's position in northeast China. Implicit in the agreement was American acknowledgment of Japan's right to annex Korea and dominance over southern Manchuria, and Japan's acquiescence to limitations on Japanese immigration to California. 
"Gentlemen's Agreement" 1908
- informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan
- where by the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration
- or students, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S.
- The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific
- nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924
- ended it.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
- asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilize" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts. The alternative, according to the U.S. assumptions, was intervention by European powers, especially Great Britain and France, which had lent money to countries that were unable to repay. As with many high-risk
- investments, these loans were made with the lenders fully aware of the
- financial difficulties these countries were going through, and they were
- part of a broader campaign to gain economic control of nations with
- unstable economies. The catalyst for the new policy was the British and German gunboat diplomacy in the Venezuela Crisis of 1902-1903.
- replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. The amendment stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba after the Spanish-American War, and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations.
- The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs, both foreign
- and domestic, and gave legal standing to U.S. claims to certain economic
- and military territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty 1901
nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across the Central American isthmus to connect the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, both nations had renounced building such a canal under the sole control of one nation.
effort of the United States — particularly under President William Howard Taft — to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt
- idea that the United States would support only Latin American governments that were democratic
- or otherwise supported United States interests. The president hoped to
- influence and control other countries through economic pressure, which
- is why, by not supporting countries without a democratic government, he
- hoped to hurt them economically, and thus force them into submission.
- President Wilson described his foreign policy, Moral Diplomacy, in the following way: "The force of America is the force of moral principle."
- Mexican military officer and president of Mexico. Huerta's supporters were known as Huertistas
- during the Mexican revolution. Huerta is still vilified by modern-day
- Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal — "The Jackal".
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914 and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
- veritable caudillo of the Northern Mexican state of Chihuahua
- which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United
- States of America, provided him with extensive resources. Villa was also
- provisional Governor of Chihuahua
- in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into
- the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death,
- today his memory is honored by Mexicans, Americans, and many people
- around the world. In addition, numerous streets and neighborhoods in
- Mexico are named in his honor
John J. "Blackjack" Pershing
general officer in the United States Army. Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority). Pershing also holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). Pershing led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, and was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton.
"Colossus of the North"
- name for the United States typically used by those who view the country as oppressive to its southern neighbors. Popular Hispanic sentiment grew against this supposed Colossus in the early 20th century, particularly after American interference in Nicaragua and Panama for economic purposes.
- President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to combat this negative perception of the U.S. by implementing his Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America, particularly Central America and the Caribbean.
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1890
- history of naval warfare written in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan.
- It details the role of sea power throughout history and discusses the
- various factors needed to support and achieve sea power, with emphasis
- on having the largest and most powerful fleet. Scholars consider it the
- single most influential book in naval strategy; its policies were
- quickly adopted by most major navies.
You furnish the pictures and I will furnish the war!
Jones Act 1917
- Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens, the people of Puerto Rico were empowered to have a popularly-elected Senate, established a bill of rights, and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner
- to a four year term. Also known as the "Jones Act of Puerto Rico" or
- "Jones Law of Puerto Rico", it amended the "Organic Act of Puerto Rico"
- created by the Foraker Act of 1900. (This "Jones Act" applies only to Puerto Rico.) The act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on March 2, 1917.
invented in Havana, Cuba around 1901/1902. Patriots aiding Cuba during the Spanish-American War — and, later, expatriates avoiding Prohibition regularly mixed rum and Cola as a highball and a toast to this West Indies island.
- Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation.
- Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President.
- He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's
- president, and the longest-lived (having survived to age 94).
capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina famous for its traditional religious diversity, with adherents of Islam, Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Judaism coexisting there for centuries. Due to this long and rich history of religious diversity and coexistence Sarajevo has often been called the "Jerusalem of Europe".
- military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II.
- Although in theory U-boats could have been useful fleet weapons against
- enemy naval warships, in practice they were most effectively used in an
- economic warfare role (commerce raiding), enforcing a naval blockade
- against enemy shipping. The primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in
- both wars were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from the British Empire and the United States to the islands of Great Britain. Austrian submarines of World War I were also known as U-boats.
- The distinction between U-boat and submarine is common in English-language usage (where U-boat refers exclusively to the German vessels of the World Wars) but is unknown in German, in which the term U-Boot refers to any submarine.
Gore-McLemore Resolution 1916
- After the sinking of the Arabic in early 1916 Congress debated this
- resolution, which would have prohibited Americans from traveling on
- armed merchant vessels or ships w/contraband. But, the resolution was
- eventually killed off.