1. What is new about family history?
    • 1. Focus to micro level everyday events and lives.
    • 2. Expansion of scoe to include differences in social class, race, gender, and region. (Most info is still with midde class and other info is more difficult to obtain)
    • 3. New methods of research
    • (Family reconstituion and aggregate date analysis)
  2. Diversity
    Broad differences in US population have made generalizations about "the family" impossible
  3. Diversity among families
    • 1. Native American families
    • 2. Class differences among European immigrants
    • 3. European nationalities
    • 4. African American families
  4. Uneven Change
    • Historical changes in the family have not taken place uniformly throughout society
    • - Effects of race, class, gender, and age
  5. Human Agency
    Families are active agents rather than passive victims of change
  6. Family Life in Colonia America
    • 1. Macro structural conditions and family life
    • 2. Family structure and household composition
    • 3. Wives and Husbands
    • 4. Children
  7. Macro structural conditions and family life
    • 1. Godly Family
    • 2. Characterized by family-based economy
    • - All members worked at productive tasks differentiated by age and sex.
    • - No sharp distinctions made btwn family and society
    • - Family performed many functions over and above economic
    • 3. Family matters were not considered private. Community intervention was common.
  8. Family Structure and Household Composition
    • Typically nuclear in structure although they tended to be larger in size than contemporary families
    • -primary cause of increase in size was presence of servants, boarders, and lodgers.
  9. Wives and Husbands
    • 1. Marriages were arranged based on the social and economic purpose of kin groups
    • 2. Romantic love existed but mariage was more of an economic contract
    • 3. Shortage of women enchanced the status of women
  10. Children
    • 1. Families reared large numbers of children but number in household tended to be regulated due to extended period of childbearing
    • 2. Religious training was intensive and discipline severe
    • 3. Childhood not recognized as a separate stage of development
    • 4. were viewed in economic terms
  11. The Emergence of Modern Family Life
    • 1. Marco structural conditions and family life: industrialization moved work from home to factories.
    • 2. Agency, Adaption, and Change
    • 3. Household Size and Composition: smaller households by removing work from home.
    • 4. Wives and Husbands
    • 5. Children
    • 6. Challenging a uniform definition of the family
  12. Macro Structural Conditions and Family Life
    • 1. Family-wage economy: workers earn outside the home and support family on wages.
    • 2. Families take on specialized functions of procreation, consumption, and childrearing.
    • 3. Privatization meant that individuals were less accountable to their communities.
  13. Agency, Adaption, and Change
    • 1. Individuals were not passive victims of change and family relationships shaped emerging social order.
    • 2. Responses to dilemma of declining land
    • -increased migration
    • -movement toward trades
    • - weakened parental control over children
  14. Wives and Husbands (Modern)
    • 1. Romantic love and mutual affection replaced economic considerations.
    • 2. Production transferred outside the family
    • 3. Activities split into the male work and female world of the family
  15. Children (Modern)
    • 1. Came to viewed as different than adults
    • 2. Seen as innocent and with special needs
  16. Challenging a Uniform Definition of the Family
    • 1. Modern family form emerged as a race-specific and class-specific arrangement.
    • 2. The ideals and myths emerge based on assumption of middle and upper class as the standards
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