Psychology Midterm 2

  1. Discrete emotions theory
    theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions, and that these have distinct biological roots with evolutionary functions
  2. Primary emotions
    small number (perhaps 7) of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal
  3. Secondary emotions
    an array of emotions arising from the primary emotions
  4. Duchene smile
    genuine expression of happiness (upward turned mouth, creased eyelids or eyes)
  5. Pan Am smile
    the fake smile (upward turned mouth, but not eyes)
  6. Motivation Structural Rules
    deep-seated similarities in communication across animal species
  7. Display rules
    cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions
  8. Cognitive theories of emotion
    theory proposing that emotions are products of thinking rather than biology
  9. James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli
  10. Somatic Marker Theory
    theory proposing that we use our “gut reactions” to help us determine how we should act
  11. Pure autonomic failure (PAF)
    a rare condition marked by a deterioration of autonomic nervous system neurons beginning in middle age. Individuals with PAF don’t experience increases in heart rate or sweating to emotional stimuli
  12. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions
  13. Two-factor Theory of Emotion
    theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation of that arousal)
  14. Mere exposure effect
    phenomenon in which repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it
  15. Facial feedback hypothesis
    idea that blood vessels in the face feed back temperature information in the brain, altering our experience of emotions
  16. Motivation
    psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction
  17. Drive reduction theory
    theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration, motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states
  18. Homeostasis
    biological equilibrium
  19. Approach
    a predisposition toward certain stimuli (e.g. food, bed for sleeping)
  20. Avoidance
    a disposition away from certain stimuli (e.g. bitter veggies, studying for exams)
  21. Incentive Theories
    theories proposing that we’re often motivated by positive goals
  22. Intrinsic motivation:
    being motivated by internal goals (when you innately like something and want to do it)
  23. Extrinsic motivation
    being motivated by external goals (e.g. when you do something because you’re paid to do it or you get some external reward for it)
  24. Contrast effect
    once we receive reinforcement for performing a behavior, we anticipate that reinforcement again. If the reinforcement is suddenly withdrawn, we’re less likely to perform the behavior
  25. Primary needs
    reflect biological necessities
  26. Secondary needs
    reflect psychological necessities (e.g. need for achievement, need for social interaction, need for belonging)
  27. Hierarchy of needs:
    Maslow’s model proposing that we must satisfy physiological needs and needs for safety/security before progressing to more complex needs
  28. Lateral hypothalamus
    (hypothesized to be) important for initiating eating
  29. Ventromedial hypothalamus
    (hypothesized to be) important for stopping eating (satiety, or fullness)
  30. Glucostatic theory
    theory that when our blood glucose levels drop, hunger creates a drive to eat to restore the proper level of glucose
  31. Leptin
    hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used
  32. Desire phase
    phase in human sexual response triggered by whatever prompts sexual interest
  33. Excitement phase
    phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it
  34. Orgasm (climax) phase
    phase in human sexual response marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions of the muscles of genitals in both men and women
  35. Resolution phase
    phase in human sexual response following orgasm, I which people report relaxation and a sense of well-being
Card Set
Psychology Midterm 2
Emotion & Motivation