Pharmacology Review

  1. mood stabilizers
    Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Valproic Acid (Depakote) Gabapentine (Neurontin)
  2. Absorption
    time the drug enters the body until it gets into the bloodstream. affected by dosage form, route, GI motility
  3. ACE inhibitor works
    Renin - angiotensinogen - Angiotnesin - ACE - ANGIOTENSIN II - vasoconstriction - aldosterone - increased Na/water
  4. ACE inhibitors
    Inhibits the ACE in the lungs and prevents the formation of angiotensin II, this stops vasoconstriction and aldosterone
  5. ACE inhibitors SE
    cough, angioedema, proteinuria, taste changes, orthostatic hypotension, pruritus, renal failure, rash, hyperkalemia
  6. AIDS
    NRTI - Zidovudine (AZT) NNRT - Delavirdine, Nevirapine PI - Saqinavir, Ritonavir, Indinair
  7. Alpha 1 Blockers (-zosin)
    Blocks the effects of the SNS by binding to alpha 1 receptor sites. antihypertensive/BPH
  8. Angiotensin II Blockers (-sartan)
    binds to angiotensin II receptor sites
  9. Antacids
    neutralizes gastric acid. Mg-diarrhea. avoid in renal pts. Ca & aluminum - constipation
  10. Anti-Infectives
    antibiotic, anti-tuberculars, antiviral agents, AIDS, Antifungal Agents (-azole)
  11. Anti-Tuberculars
    Isoniazid (INH) - Pyridoxine (Vit B6) to prevent peripheral neuritis. Ethambutol (myambutol), Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Streptomycin
  12. Antibiotics
    Penicillins (allergies. inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis). Cephalosporins (-Cef - cross sensitivity) Vancomycin (Vancocin). Tetracyclines (-cycline. discoloration & bone abnormalities contraindication for pregnancy & children). aminoglycosides - (KNOW nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity). Quinolones (-floxacin - for serious infection - cidal). Sulfonamids (-Sul - allergy - inhibit -static - UTI)
  13. Anticoagulant
    Heparin: monitor PTT. Antidote: Protamine Sulfate Enoxaparin (Lovenox) Warfarin Sodium (Coumadin): Monitor PT/INR. antidote (Vit K)
  14. Anticoagulant SE
  15. Antidiabetic Agents
    Insulin, Sulfonylureas, Biguanides, Theazolidinediones, Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors, meglitinides
  16. Antidiabetic MOA
    Insulin binds to receptor sites o cells and allows glucose to enter the cell for energy
  17. Antidiabetic Nursing Considerations
    roll gently, rapid first only IV, monitor BS. always listen to pt. errors with this drug can cause death
  18. Antidiabetic SE
    hypoglycemia (know onset, peak and duration), ketoacidosis
  19. Antiepileptics
    Phenytoin (Dilantin - prototype). monitor therapeutic levels 10-20. must be given IV - only in NS and administered slowly
  20. Antifibrinolytics
    Aminocaproic Acid (Amicar)
  21. Antifungal Agents (-azole)
    Griseofulvin. Amphotericin B. Diflucan (Fluconazole). Nystatin
  22. Antiplatelet
    ASA, Dipyridamole (Persantine, Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
  23. Antipsychotics
  24. Antiviral Agents
    Amantadine and Rimantadine (influenza A). Acyclovir (Zovirax) HSV. Cidofovir, Ganciclovir, Foscarnet, CMV
  25. Barbiturates
    (antiepileptic) potentiates GABA. phenobarbital most frequently prescribed
  26. Benzodiazepines
    lams and pam. Suppress CNS activity Clonazepam (Klonopin) also used as a MOOD STABILIZER
  27. Beta Blockers MOA
    blocks the effects of SNS at beta receptor sites
  28. Beta Blockers NU Considerations
    monitor HR & BP, I&O, and weight
  29. Beta Blockers SE
    heart block, bradycardia, insomnia, dizziness, drowsiness, hypotension, and rash
  30. Cardiac Glycosides
    Digoxin (Lanoxin). used for CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) and atrial fibrillation. positive inotrope, negative chronotrope
  31. Cardiac Glycosides Antidotes
    Digoxin Immune Fab (Digibind)
  32. Cardiac Glycosides NU Considerations
    AP 60-100. nl level 0.5-2.0 mg/ml
  33. Cardiac Glycosides SE
    Anorexia, N/V, visual disturbances, arrhythmias, bradycardia, dig. toxicity with hypokaemia
  34. Centrally acting Agents
    Binds to alpha 2 receptor sites and decreases outflow of the SNS from the brain (decreases BP) Clonidine (Catapres)
  35. CNS agents
    Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Anti-epileptics Mood Stabilizers, Antipsychotics
  36. Culture and Sensitivity
    Identifying organisms and teh drugs that kill the bugs
  37. Distribution
    drug distributed to site of action. protein binding. blood brain barrier
  38. Diuretics
    MOA: inhibit the reabsorption of Na and H2O. NU consideration: Monitor K
  39. Drug Resistant Organisms
  40. Drugs affecting coagulation
    anticoagulants, antiplatelets, antifibrinolytics, and thrombolytic drugs
  41. Drugs with FPE
    are given by routes other than oral
  42. Excretion
    drugs eliminated from body primarily by kidneys but also intestines, lungs, and mammary, sweat, and salivary glands (leaving the body). half-life: the time required for total amount of drug to decrease by 50%
  43. GI Drugs
    Antacids, H2 Agonist (-tidine), Proton pump Inhibitors (-prazole), Antiflatulents, Anti-diarrheals, laxatives, Antiemetics
  44. Glucagon
    possible antidote for beta-blocker OD
  45. H2 Antagonist (-tidine)
    binds to H2 receptor sties to decrease HCL acid production
  46. IV doses of drugs
    are going to be smaller because they bypass FPE (100% bioavailability)
  47. Loop Diuretics
    (-amide) - furosamide (Lasix) lose K
  48. Metabolism
    primarily liver. hepatic FPE. infants and elderly have a decreased ability to metabolized drugs
  49. Narcotic Analgesic
    Morphine Sulfate, Meperidine (Demerol), Methadone
  50. Narcotic Antagonist
    Nalaxone hydrochloride (Narcan)
  51. Narcotic MOA
    Binds to opioid receptors to decrease pain perception. CNS: (Brainstem) controls respiratory rate
  52. Narcotic SE
    RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, N/V constipation! (know) sedation, confusion, euphoria, impaired coordination, urinary retention, pupil constriction
  53. Nitrate NU considerations
    large FPE, teach to take one 1/4 grain tablet when chest pain occurs. Lie down and rest. Take 1 tab every 5 minutes up to 3 tab. Call 911 if no relief after first tab.
  54. Nitrates - Vasodilators
    Nitroglycerin. SE - postural hypotension, HA, and tachycardia
  55. Non narcotic Analgesics
    Acetaminophen (Tylenol, APAP) non-narcotic analgesic. not an NSAID because of no anti-inflammatory properties. hepatotoxicity with acute OD (CP 450 metabolite problems). antidote for OD: acetylcysteine (Mucomyst - respiratory drug)
  56. Normal flora
    bacteria, fungi, or protozoa in the oropharynx, upper and lower intestine, lower GU tract, conjuctiv and skin. These microbial agents prevent pathogens from causing infection when normal flora are killed during broad spectrum antibiotic therapy (sensitive)
  57. NSAID SE
    Tinnitus, GI bleeding, N/V (prostaglandins good in stomach. acid irritating to stomach)
  58. NSAIDS
    Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin, ASA - prototype) Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil). antiplatelet properties with daily dosing: 81-325mg. Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and thromboxane
  59. Nursing Considerations (Narcotic Analgesics)
    Always assess respiratory rate before giving, assess pt pain perception, evaluate effectiveness of medication
  60. Pharmacodynamics
    what the drug does to the body (drug action)
  61. Pharmacokinetics
    What the body does to the drug
  62. Potassium-Sparing diuretics
    Spirolactone (Aldactone) keep K
  63. Receptor interactions
    Agonist: binds to receptor site & causes reaction Antagonist: binds to receptor and blocks the reaction that normally occurs Enzyme interactions. non specific interactions
  64. Sodium Channel Blockers
    Lidocaine (Xylocaine) SE: drowsiness, V-tach, heart block, HTN, bradycardia NU considerations: monitor pulse and BP
  65. Superinfection
    secondary infection caused from use of antibiotics in first infection?
  66. Thiazide
  67. Thrombolytics
    Streptokinase (Streptase), Alteplase (Activase)
Card Set
Pharmacology Review
Pharmacology Review