What is believed to be the earliest implements devised for the care of teeth.
What has been considered the primitive tooth brush?
chewstick made from various types of tasty woods, by crushing an end and spreading the fibers in a brush like mater
What are the 3 types of tooth brushes?
Describe 7 characteristics of an effective tooth brush
conforms to individual patient requirements in size, shape, and texture
easily and effeciently manipulated
readily cleaned and aerated; impervious to moisture
durable and inexpensive
flexible, soft, prime diameter of bristles or filaments, and of strength, rigidity and lightness of handle
utility, efficiency, and cleanliness
What are 6 factors that influence tooth brush selection for a patient?
patient - ability to used it and remove biofilm; manual dexterity; age and dentition
gingiva - status of health; anatomic configuration
position of teeth - crowded teeth, or open contacts
shape of teeth and exposed roots
compliance - pt preference; resistance to change; motivation, ability, or willingness to follow procedure
do power tooth brushes mimick the motions of manual brushing?
current power brushes move in speeds and motions that cannot be _______ ___ _________________
duplicated by manual tooth brushes
which is more effective, manual or power tooth brushes?
What are 3 purposes and indications for the general application of general application of power tooth brushes?
pts who have ineffective manual biofilm removal techniques
facilitate the mechanical removal of dental biofilm and food debris
reduce calculus and stain buildup
What are 10 purposes and indications of power tooth brushes for special pts?
failed attempts at more traditional biofilm removal methods
complex restorative and prosthodontic treatment
disabilities or limited dexterity
pts unable to brush
used by parent or caregiver
what are 4 different types of power tooth brush motion?
entire brush head moves as one unit
groups of tufts on the same brush head move differently
entire brush head moves as a unit but in different yet simultaneous motions
different shaped brush heads move separately
power tooth brush speeds vary from low to high. generally, do power tooth brushes that have replaceable batteries, or rechargeable batteries go faster?
what are three types of power toothbrush head designs?
What are the filaments of power tooth brushes made of?
soft, ende-rounded nylon
What are 4 different power sources for power tooth brushes?
direct - connect to an outlet
what are 4 uses of the toothbrush?
application of treatment or preventive agents
sanitation of oral cavity
In what type of gingival embrasure does the interdental papilla fill the gingival embrasure?
In what type of gingival embrasure is there slight to moderate recession of the interdental papilla?
In what type of gingival embrasure is there extensive recession or complete loss of papilla?
How many papillae are between adjacent posterior teeth?
two, one facial and one lingual
a depressed concave area that follows the shape of the apical border of the contact area and connects the papillae between adjacent posterior teeth
How many papilla are between anterior teeth in contact? What shape is it?
true or false. The tip of the papilla may form a small col under the contact area of anterior teeth.
The epithelium covering a col is usually thin and not ______________
_____ epithelium is protected and is less resistant to infection than _________ surfaces
What conditions cause the col to become deeper?
inflammation in the papilla leads to enlargement with increased inflammatory cells and edema
The col area is inaccessible for ordinary __________; microorganisms are harbored in the __________ __________
Where does most gingival disease start?
the col area
The incidence of gingivitis is greatest where?
What happens to the gingival attachment and the interdental papilla with bacterial infection?
loss of gingival attachment
interdental papillae reduced in height
concavities and grooves are predisposed to what?
With advanced periodontitis furcation areas of what teeth open onto the proximal surfaces?
maxillary first premolars
In planning interdental care, what are 4 factors of pt assessment to observe?
history of personal oral care: type of toothbrush, floss, etc. frequency and time spent; pt's priorities on personal oral care
Dental and gingival anatomy: position of teeth; types and shapes of embrasures; probing depths; prostheses; areas where toothbrush can't reach
extent and location of biofilm
personal factors: handicap or disabled; knowledge and appreciation for dental care
In planning dental care what are 2 factors about the dental hygiene care plan?
objectives: interdental aids; teach pt. correct system; motivate pt to accept responsibility for interdental care
Initial care plan: first choose simple procedure; minimum frequency (2-3 times per week); keep it realistic; as values the pt places on interdental care increase, more refined programs can be introduced
What are 5 types of floss used?
expanded PTFE (glide)
historically floss was made of ______ fibers lossely twisted together to form a strand and waxed for proximal surface cleaning
__________ multifilaments, waxed or unwaxed, have been widely used in circular (floss) or flat (tape) form for biofilm removal from proximal tooth surface
plastic monofilament polytetrafluorothylene with wax is used for proximal tooth surface biofilm removal
What type of floss has a smooth surface that helps to prevent trauma to soft tissue, ans slides through contact area with ease? What material provides the smooth surface?
waxed or expanded PTFE
What type of floss resists breakage or shredding when passed over irregular tooth surface, restoration, or calculus deposit?
monofilament waxed or expanded PTFE
What gives strength and durability during floss application, and shredding or breakage of floss is rare?
the following features describe what kind of floss?
thinner floss may be helpful when contacts are tight, but forcing it might break it
pressure against a tooth surface spreads nylon fibers and gives a wider surface for biofilm removal
sharper thin edge requires special attention to prevent injury to the gingival tissue when guiding floss through a tight contact area or when moving floss on the tooth surface in an apical direction
hear a squeaking sound
unwaxed floss frays
if floss is tightly wrapped around fingers it can cause discomfort
When is it best to floss?
What are 8 helpful tips in the flossing procedure?
12-25" piece of floss with 1/2 inch used inbetween teeth at a time
wrap floss around middle fingers
use a fulcrum
make sure to press floss gently below the gingiva
make sure to get the distal surface of the last tooth
advance to an unused portion of floss between each tooth
double the floss if needed
What are 2 areas that you need to take extra precaution in flossing
col - it is not keratinized, and you can damage it by flossing too hard
newly erupting teeth - have a week junctional epithelium attachment
What are 4 things to do to prevent floss cuts and clefts?
make sure you don't use too long a piece when going interdentally
avoid snapping the floss down into area
use a complete "c" shape
What 5 alternate flosses?
tufted dental floss
type of floss that is also called a floss/yarn combination and there are two variations of this type of floss available
tufted dental floss
What are the two different types of tufted floss?
super floss - single, precut lengths
NUfloss - roll, alternates with plain floss and tufted portions
What type of floss is good for biofilm removal of tooth surfaces with wide embrasures where the interdental papilla have been lost, or for mesial and distal abutments, under pontics, or orthodontic appliances?
tufted dental floss
What are some reasons to used knitting yarn for floss?
wide proximal spaces
abutments, partial dentures, and pontics
for isolated teeth
What are some reasons to use a gauze strip for floss?
widely spaced teeth
teeth surfaces next to edentulous areas
distal and mesial surfaces of abutment teeth
areas under posterior cantilevered section of a fixed appliance
What are 5 types of interdental brushes that might be affective to use?