1. Cognitive Psychology
    Examination of behavior in "normal" subjects
  2. Neuropsychology
    Examination of behavior in brain-damaged subjects
  3. Neuroimaging
    Measurements of neural activity across the entire brain or some large subset of (fMRI, PET, ERP)
  4. Neurophysiology
    Recording from individual cells
  5. Behaviorism vs. Cognitivism
    Cog. tried to determine what was taking place between the stimulus and the response that may be explained by something in the brain
  6. How to conduct a cognitive experiment
    • subjects do a single task
    • measure reaction time or accuracy
    • Determines
    • Representations: How information is stored in the brain
    • Processes: How the brain manipulates and transforms this info
  7. Posner letter matching test
    Determine if two letters are from same or different category
  8. Cognitive Subtraction
    • present a light hit a button
    • hit a button when light is green not red
    • hit left button when green; right button when red

    T2-T1 or T3-T1
  9. shepard Mental Rotation Task
    Mental rotation and parametric variation
  10. advantages/short comings of Cognitive psych experiments
    • not messy
    • first look at what we may be able to understand

    not constrained
  11. Real World Landmark learning
    • G and his wife (3 times have to identify landmarks)
    • got many of them wrong
    • could not draw hotel room
    • could not draw the lab room
    • could draw his old apt

    hypothesis: maybe has trouble encoding scenes into memory but not objects
  12. gave G the
    N back test
  13. Process Dissociation Steps
    • 1. Identify a specific cognitive deficit
    • 2. Demonstrate the deficit does not exist in all people (control experiment)
  14. What is the problem with sigle dissociation
    what if the task that is harder just simply taps the deficit more than the other task?
  15. graphs should be laid out with
    • performance on Y axis
    • task on X axis
  16. Double dissociation
    • uses another group of subjects that are impaired and have them serve as a 3rd study group
    • that are impaired on teh otehr task-
    • so 1 group impaired on task 1
    • 1 group impaired on task 2
    • control group not impaired at all
  17. We _____tasks
    We _____processes

  18. since we never observe ____directly _____are possible
  19. For double dissociations, don't have to use brain damaged subjects, can also use
    behavioral manipulations (condition 1 and condition 2)
  20. Working Memory Delayed-Recognition Tasks
    inserting face distractors and scene distractors
  21. Working Memory Delayed- Recognition tasks (describe single and double)
    • Single- just have face distractors and no distracts
    • Double- have face distractors and scene distractors
  22. Double Dissociation tells you
    • Independence of two cogntive processes
    • ...and sometimes the neural bases for those processes
  23. To establish structure-function more closesly use
    group studies
  24. EEG
  25. a dipole is when
    • When neurons are oriented parallel to each other and fire in synchrony,
    • produce a voltage differential
  26. a dipole is created by what cells
    post-synaptic, pyramidal
  27. groups of neurons can be measured when
    they are oriented paralles to each other and perpendicular to the cortical surface, electrical activity can propogate and be recorded
  28. a variation in voltage is revealed when
    the voltage differential in a pair of electrodes attached to the scalp is recorded over tim
  29. An ERP is
    The pattern of electrical activity measured at thescalp, but produced by the brain, characteristic ofa particular event, e.g. visual, motor, cognitive.
  30. ERP measures
    the brain potenetial that is observed during the presentation of an event
  31. ERP components
    features of waveforms related to experimental events or conditions

    • P= positive
    • N= negative

    these are reversed on the graphical representations
  32. P or N timing indicates
    • latency
    • miliseconds
  33. What can we infer from ERP's
    • Amplitude
    • Latency
    • Topography
  34. EEG and ERP
    EEG is ongoing

    ERP is an event )removing teh noise)
  35. ERP is a series of
    voltage deflections
Card Set
Exam #1