Psychology Midterm 2

  1. Language
    a largely arbitrary system of communication that combines symbols, suchas words or gestural signs, in rule-based ways to create meaning
  2. Phonemes
    the categories of sounds our vocal apparatus produces
  3. Morphemes
    the smallest units of speech that are meaningful (think “M” for meaningful)
  4. Syntax
    the grammatical rules that govern how we compose words into meaningful strings
  5. Morphological Markers
    grammatical elements that modify words by adding sounds to them that change their meaning (e.g. adding “–s” for plural in English)
  6. Dialects
    language variations used by groups of people who share geographic proximity or ethnic background
  7. Extralinguistic information
    elements of communication that aren’t part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning
  8. Phonesthemes
    similar-sounding words that have related meanings
  9. Bilingual
    proficient and fluent at speaking and comprehending two distinct languages
  10. High-amplitude sucking procedure
    places a pacifier in an infants mouth and allows the infant to suck freely. The pacifier is hooked up to a computer that measures the rate and intensity of sucking.
  11. Babbling
    intentional vocalization (not crying, burping, sighing, or laughing) that lacks specific meaning. E.g. “bababadaabada”
  12. Comprehension precedes production
    key principle characterizing early word learning in which children learn to recognize and interpret words before they can produce them
  13. Production constraints
    limitations on how easily children can coordinate their vocal apparatus to produce sounds
  14. Dyspraxia
    more pauses, slower speech, more effortful speech, and more variable pronunciation of words due to motor planning and coordination difficulties
  15. Stuttering
    repeated articulation of the same sounds, prolonged pronunciation of some sounds, and sudden spurts of speech
  16. Holophrases
    single-word phrases used early in language development to convey an entire thought “more juice”
  17. Imitation account
    children learn language through imitation.
  18. Language is generative
    allowing an infinite number of unique sentences to be createdby combining words in novel ways
  19. Nativist account
    children come into the world knowing how language works(idea that children are born with syntactic rules)
  20. Language acquisition device
    hypothetical organ in the brain in which nativists believe knowledge of syntax resides
  21. Social pragmatics account
    suggests that particular aspects of the social environment help structure language learning. Children infer what words and sentences mean from context and social interactions.
  22. General cognitive processing account
    proposes that children’s ability to learn language is a result of general skills that children apply across a variety of activities.
Card Set
Psychology Midterm 2