Chapter 10

  1. photosynthesis
    the conversion process in which chloroplasts capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugar and other organic molecules
  2. autotrophs
    "self-feeders"/producers; they sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings; produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials; ex: plants (photoautotrophs)
  3. heterotrophs
    consumers; unable to make their own food, they live on compounds produced by other organisms; dependent on photoautotrophs for food and oxygen
  4. chlorophyll
    cause of the green color in a leaf; the green pigment located wihtin chloroplasts
  5. mesophyll
    the tissue interior of the leaf; where chloroplasts are mainly found; a typica cell has from 30-40 chloroplasts
  6. stomata
    microscopic pores through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits the leaf
  7. stroma
    dense fluid within the chloroplast; enclosed by an envelope of two membranes; light-independent
  8. thylakoid
    system of interconnected membranous sacs that seperates the stroma from the interior of the thylakoids (aka the thylakoid space); grana are stacks of thylakoid sacs
  9. the oxygen given off by plants is derived from...
    WATER (H2O) and NOT carbon dioxide (CO2)
  10. photophosphorylation
    the usage of chemiosmosis to create ATP with the addition of a phosphate group to ADP
  11. carbon fixation
    the incorporation of CO2 from the air into organic molecules already present in the chloroplast
  12. the light reaction takes place in the __________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the __________
    • 1) thylakoids of the chloroplast
    • 2) stroma
  13. electromagnetic spectrum
    the entire range of radiation
  14. visible light
    segment most important to life is 380-750nm in wavelength, can be detedted as varius colors by the human eye
  15. photons
    discrete particles that make up light; each has a fixed quantity of energy
  16. the amount of energy is inversely related to the wavelength of the light:
    the shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy of each photon of that light; aka violet packs twice as much energy as red light
  17. pigments
    substances that absorb visible light
  18. spectrophotometer
    measures the ability of a pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light
  19. absorption spectrum
    a graph plotting a pigment's light absorption versus wavelength
  20. chlorophyll a
    one of three pigments found in chloroplasts; absorbs violet-blue and red light best, meaning those lights are the most effective for photosynthesis
  21. action spectrum
    profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation
  22. carotenoids
    hydrocarbon accessory pigments that are yellow and orange because they absorb violet and blue-green light
  23. photoprotection
    important function of some carotenoids; they absorb and dissipate excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll or interact negatively with oxygen
  24. photosystem
    composed of protein complex called reaction-center complex (composed of a pair of chlorophyll a molecules) surrounded by several light-harvesting complexes (consists of pigment molecules bound to proteins); reaction-center complex contains a primary electron acceptor
  25. cyclic electron flow
    uses photosystem I but not II; no production of NADPH and no release of oxygen; does generate ATP
Card Set
Chapter 10
Bio II Midterm